Black Saints and the Priesthood (Brigham Young/Early Utah era)

826 Primary Sources

1200 BC - 600 BC

Hebrew text of Genesis 6–9 (story of Noah).

170 BC

James H. Charlesworth translates text regarding Cain as a "dark calf."

60 - 70 AD

Peter receives revelation saying to reveal gospel to Gentiles.

100 - 200 AD

Uncertain Syriac text indicating "black" or "sad."

400 - 500 AD

Codex Vaticanus reference to Cain.

609 - 632 AD

Ali Ünal offers translation re: Cain.

700 - 1300

AAAL offers an account of Cain where identified as "black."


LCE scribe writes C as "casting down" his face.


Leningrad Codex editor scribes Masoretic text of Genesis 4:15 describing the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.

1200 - 1300

Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon offer translation of Kabbalah text re: C's curse.


Thomas Peyton identifies Cain as "black."


Apocryphal account of Cain being killed by an arrow after being mistaken for an animal.


Elihu Coleman rejects that Cain and Canaan share a common lineage.

Oct 16, 1785

Paul Erdmann Iserts comments on alleged "Cain" origins for Africans.


Richard Allen recounts experience of church segregation in Philadelphia.


Virginian law states that slave status is inherited from the mother.


Louisiana Legislature places ownership of children born to slaves with the enslaved mother's owner.

Sep 15, 1829

Mexico abolishes slavery.


Printer's Manuscript of BOM.


1830 census lists Sarah Hofheintz as a free black woman.


David Walker criticizes use of Cain mythology to justify enslavement.

Apr 1830

Revelation manuscript for D&C 20.


David Walker criticizes use of Cain lore for black origins.

Jan 6, 1831

LMS letter to her family describing appearance of Moroni.

Feb 1831 - Mar 1831

Joseph adds that Canaan is cursed with a "vail of darkness" in his Bible translation.

Jul 17, 1831

W. W. Phelps includes text of alleged revelation from Joseph.


The 1832 Mississippi Constitution contains slave codes.

Jun 1832 - Jul 1832

Joseph's 1832 history giving earliest firsthand account of the vision.

Jun 1832 - Jul 1832

Joseph describes his childhood education and his upbringing.

Dec 1832

JST manuscript for Psalm 14 which has similar verbiage to 1832 FV account.

Jul 1833

Phelps says "we have no special rule in the church, as to people of color."

Jul 16, 1833

Evening and Morning Star reports policy of not admitting Black people to the state or Church.

Jul 29, 1833

John Whitmer describes violence against Mormons in Missouri.

Dec 1833

Phelps describes the violence faced by Mormons in Missouri.

Dec 1833

W. W. Phelps records a letter from a group of Missourians to Latter-day Saints.

Dec 16, 1833

Joseph Smith reveals "it is not right that any man should be in bondage one to another."


Wheatley discusses the outcome of her enslavement and describes Africans in Cain-like terms.


David Child rejects the curse of Cain theory.

Dec 1834

OC letter to WWP describing JS First Vision.


Wilford Woodruff lists Lydia Walker as a member of the Eagle Creek Branch.


The 1835 D&C says "it is not right that any man should be in bondage one to another."

Feb 1835

OC writes to WWP on JS First Vision.

Apr 1, 1835

JC describes hearing JS relate First Vision when a religious revivial occurred.

Jun 2, 1835

WWP letter to his wife saying he heard JS preach.

Nov 1835 - Feb 1836

RF remembers hearing about First Vision in 1835.

Nov 9, 1835

JS account of his First Vision from 1835.

Nov 14, 1835

JS First Vision summary.

Mar 31, 1836

Joseph signs ministerial certificate for Able attesting to status as elder.

Apr 1, 1836

Joseph sees Black people as subject to the curse of Canaan.

Apr 1836

Angelina Grimke criticizes use of Canaan myth to justify enslavement.

Apr 1836

Messenger and Advocate states that the son of Ham was cursed, resulting in bondage of Black enslaved people, and that the curse will be removed someday.

Apr 9, 1836

Joseph Smith discusses slavery in a letter to Oliver Cowdery.

Nov 27, 1836

PPP recounts JS telling about his visions.

Apr 1837

Theodore Weld criticizes use of Canaan lore to justify slavery.


Weld criticizes use of Cain myth for African origins.

May 25, 1838

Wilford Woodruff serves with Joseph Ball on a mission.

May 25, 1838

Wilford Woodruff calls Joseph Ball an "Elder."

Jul 1838

Joseph Ball serves a mission in the East.

Oct 27, 1838

Lilburn Boggs directs John B. Clark to carry out the extermination order.

Nov 17, 1838

A writer to the Colored American criticizes the Cain myth.


Times and Seasons gives a description of Missourian violence against The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1833.

Jun 1839

Joseph's 1838 canonical history.

Dec 12, 1839

Wilford Woodruff refers to accusations against Ball.

Dec 12, 1839

Joseph Ball has difficulty with other elders, which were settled.


Sarah Ann Mode Hofheintz listed as white in 1840 census.


Sarah Ann Mode Hofheintz listed as white in 1840 census.


Orson Pratt recounts JS's First Vision.


James W. C. Pennington criticizes use of Bible lore to describe African origins.

Apr 18, 1841

JM recounts meeting WS who retells JS First Vision.

May 5, 1841

William I. Appleby copies Abraham 1:26–27, describing priesthood restriction of Pharaoh, into his journal on May 5, 1841.

Jan 25, 1842

Willard Richards records in Joseph's journal that Joseph described Black people as "sons of Cain."

Feb 1842

Book of Abraham states Pharaoh was restricted from the priesthood because of lineage.

Mar 1, 1842

JS 1842 account of First Vision for JW.

Mar 15, 1842 - Apr 1, 1842

1842 publication of JS 1838 First Vision account.


OH recounting of JS First Vision.

Jan 2, 1843

Joseph favors laws to prevent mixed race marriages.

Jun 11, 1843

LR accounts of JS First Vision.

Jun 25, 1843

Elijah Able holds calling as a seventy in Cincinnati.

Jul 1843

Nott argues "probable extermination of the two races if the Whites and Blacks are allowed to intermarry."

Aug 16, 1843

J. C. Nott states that interracial marriage will produce infertile couples.

Aug 21, 1843

DNW interviews JS on the First Vision and JS details seeing two personages.


R. B. Lewis quotes Pompee Valentin-Vastey criticizing theorists who associate black people with Cain.

Jan 26, 1844 - Feb 7, 1844

Joseph Smith lists his views on emancipation in his campaign pamphlet.

Feb 8, 1844

Joseph enforces anti-miscegenation law in Illinois.

May 24, 1844

AN 1844 account of JS First Vision.

Jun 1, 1844

Ball serves as chair of Joseph's Boston election committee.

Oct 9, 1844

Woodruff writes to Brigham about William Smith's mismanagement of the branch.


IDR prints JS' account of the First Vision, where he sees two personages who are exactly the same.

1845 - 1854

List of enslaved individuals in Brigham's papers.


Lucy Mack Smith conflates First Vision and Moroni visit.

Feb 1845

William Clayton includes a summary of the events leading the Martyrdom in the Council of Fifty minutes.

Apr 1, 1845

John Taylor states that the descendants of Ham have black skin, and are "apostate of the holy priesthood" and that the abolitionists are trying to make void the curse.

Apr 1, 1845

John Taylor states that the descendants of Ham have black skin, and are "apostate of the holy priesthood" and that the abolitionists are trying to make void the curse.

Apr 27, 1845

Hyde uses premortal explanation to give an opinion on origins of Black people.

Apr 27, 1845

Orson Hyde uses premortal explanation to give an opinion on origins of Black people.

Jun 1, 1845

George Hales records evidence that Able still held the priesthood in 1845.

Oct 22, 1845

Thomas C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, gives notice that he plans to publish a proclamation by William Smith.

Oct 29, 1845

Apostle and Patriarch William Smith gives his reasons for opposing the leadership of Brigham Young and the rest of the Twelve.

Nov 1, 1845

Willard Richards notifies the Church in Times and Seasons of the excommunication of William Smith on Oct 12, 1845 for having "turned away from the truth".

Nov 1, 1845

Parley P. Pratt abstained from sustaining William Smith as an apostle and patriarch.

Dec 24, 1845

Heber C. Kimball's journal records Hofheintz couple as receiving their endowment in Nauvoo.


John Whittier sees Enoch Lewis preaching.

May 11, 1846

James K. Polk explains why he wishes to declare war on Mexico.

May 13, 1846

The United States declares war against Mexico.

Oct 1846

The Voree Herald reports on a claim that Orson Hyde baptized and ordained an Indian who calls himself "a Lamanite prophet."


Congressional act creating Utah Territory.


Florida laws circumscribed ownership of certain property by slaves.

1847 - 1853

Wilford Woodruff records entering the Salt Lake Valley.


Pioneer emigration records list Green Flake.


Florida law describing punishment for unlawful assemblies.


Congressional act abolishing slavery in U.S. territories.


Entry for Oscar (Smith) Crosby in pioneer company records describes him as "colored."

Jan 14, 1847

Revelation to Brigham Young describes reasons the Saints left Nauvoo for the West.

Mar 1, 1847

Robert Campbell comments on William McCary and Lucy Stanton as couple.

Mar 26, 1847

Brigham says he doesn't care about the blood or color of McCary.

Mar 26, 1847

Brigham says he doesn't care about the blood or color of McCary.

Apr 16, 1847

Heber C. Kimball notes Hark Lay, Oscar Crosby, and Green Flake in his pioneer company.

Apr 25, 1847

Pratt briefly articulates a rationale for a priesthood ban.

May 19, 1847

William Appleby says ordination of Black people was contrary to the "order of the Church" and "Law of the Priesthood."

May 29, 1847

Brigham Young chides church members for dancing like black people.

Jun 2, 1847

Appleby notes the son of Lewis is married to a white woman.

Jun 2, 1847

William Appleby gives details on Walker Lewis's life.

Jun 2, 1847

William Appleby says that ordination of Black members could lead to intermarriage.

Jun 16, 1847

Appleby writes that he is ashamed to meet a white woman married to a Black man.

Dec 2, 1847

Brigham criticizes interracial marriage and mentions "if they were far away from the Gentiles they would all [h]av[e] to be killed."

Dec 2, 1847

William I. Appleby references the interracial marriage of Enoch Lewis.

Dec 2, 1847

Brigham criticizes interracial marriage and mentions "if they were far away from the Gentiles they would all [h]av[e] to be killed."


Pioneer company records include Hark Lay (Wales).


List of John Bankhead's family in a wagon company roster includes 11 "servants" (slaves).


List of Francis McKown's family in a wagon company roster includes 2 slaves.


South Carolina forbids teaching slaves to read.


South Carolina laws regulate the assembling of both enslaved and free African Americans.

Feb 2, 1848

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican-American War.

Feb 26, 1848

An 1848 Alabama law requires masters to provide adequate food and clothing for slaves.

Mar 6, 1848

Alabama act prohibits slaves from traveling independently of their masters.

Jun 1848

List of members of John Brown's pioneer company of 10.


Virginia law forbids interracial marriages.

1849 - 1881

Charles C. Rich's papers include bond relating to a man named Richard.

Feb 13, 1849

Brigham says that Africans are cursed descendants of Cain.

Feb 13, 1849

Brigham says that Africans are cursed descendants of Cain.

Jul 19, 1849

Brigham says that Utahans are averse to slavery.

Nov 27, 1849

Wilford Woodruff writes a letter to Thomas L. Kane about slavery.


List of slaves in Tooele in the Official 1850 census, lists "none."


Official 1850 census schedule 2 lists the number of slaves in Salt Lake County.


The official 1850 US Census includes an entry for Green Flake.


List of slaves in the draft 1850 census for Utah Green River Precinct, shows "none."


The United States Slave Schedule lists Agnes Flake's slaves in Utah.


Official Davis County 1850 Census Schedule 2 lists the number of slaves as "none."


John Burton is listed as a member of Joseph Robinson's household in the 1850 census.


The 1850 census (official) lists of slaves in Iron County.


San Pete County's official 1850 census shows no slaves living in the county (original and copy).


The draft 1850 census lists slaves in Salt Lake County and Davis County.


The 1850 US Census lists slaves listed in Utah County (draft and official).


List of slaves in Weber county in the 1850 census, shows "none" (original and copy).

Jan 9, 1850

Henry Clay's introduces the resolution which began the Compromise of 1850.

Feb 1850

William Smith states that Orson Hyde ordained William McCary.

Feb 6, 1850

Orson Hyde explains why William Smith was excommunicated.

Mar 4, 1850

Wilford Woodruff records receipt of a letter from Quaku Walker Lewis.

Jun 25, 1850

JT recounts JS First Vision.

Jul 3, 1850

John M. Bernhisel reports to Brigham on events in Washington, D.C.

Dec 15, 1850

Orson Hyde explains Utah servitude laws.


Brigham Young advises the residents of Iron County to buy and raise Indian children.


William Crosby summarizes the Green Flake episode.

Mar 12, 1851

Brigham Young tells William Crosby that he does not support slave trading in Utah and comments on Green Flake.

Jun 1, 1851

Wilford Woodruff records Brigham condemning slavery but maintaining that Black people must be servants.

Jun 1, 1851

Brigham states that the curse of Ham makes Black people servants and he forbids slavery.


Brigham Young addresses Native American slavery in an address to the Utah Territorial Legislature.

Jan 1, 1852

Utah Territorial Legislature legalizes slavery in the territory.


Wilford Woodruff records reference to the curse of Cain and how that impacts blessings.


Wilford Woodruff's summary of a February 13, 1849 meeting in which Brigham Young states that black people are inelligible for the Priesthood because of the curse of Cain.


Frederick Douglass pokes fun at the idea of the Biblical curse of Ham.


John Fletcher writes that Ham's degraded condition resulted from marriage with the cursed race of Cain.


Josiah Priest rejects Cain theory in favor of Ham theory.


John Fletcher argues that Ham married a descendant of Cain.


Brigham Young states that God has made some to be the "masters" and "superiors" of Black people.

Jan 5, 1852

Brigham expresses his views on slavery in the margins of the document.

Jan 5, 1852

Brigham explains slave law in Utah.

Jan 11, 1852

Brigham Young explains how Sally Kahpeputz Young came into his household.

Jan 16, 1852

BY says Black Americans will have rights in Utah.

Jan 16, 1852

Wilford Woodruff reports that Brigham stated interracial marriage was worthy of death.

Jan 16, 1852

Wilford Woodruff records Brigham explaining a restriction on priesthood and temple blessings for any man having "one drop of the seed of Cane in him."

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham explains his racial rationale for slavery.

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham explains why he disapproves of American slavery but says life is better for them than others in Europe.

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham expresses opposition to slave abuse and support for Black service.

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham gives reasons for Black "service" laws.

Jan 27, 1852

Transcription of Orson Pratt's antislavery speech.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham speaks on the need to treat "the seed of Cain" well as servants.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham denounces interracial marriage and gives an explanation for the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham denounces interracial marriage and gives an explanation for the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham affirms the right of citizenship for Black people but denies the right of governance.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham expresses belief in the curse of Cain.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham says that, as a prophet, he knows Black people are the children of Cain and "cannot bear rule in the priesthood."

Feb 5, 1852

LaJean Carruth transcribes of Brigham's speech instituting the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham says only God can take the priesthood restriction off.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham says that, as a prophet, he knows Black people are the children of Cain and "cannot bear rule in the priesthood."

Apr 3, 1852

Deseret News uses Cain rationale for ban.

Jun 13, 1852

Spanish Fork Ward records include rebaptism records for Marinda Redd and Amy.

Aug 29, 1852

Orson Pratt holds Africans and other groups have a "degraded parentage" and valiant premortal spirits "kept in reserve" will not receive their bodies.

Aug 29, 1852

Orson Pratt gives first public discourse on polygamy, another example (besides the priesthood ban) of the Church taking a position without concern for popular opinion.

Nov 10, 1852

Quaku Walker Lewis returns from Utah and reopened his barber shop.

Dec 25, 1852

Brigham defends servitude in Utah and advocates for a type of segregation to create unity.

Jan 16, 1853

Brigham highlights how all peoples, including "dark-skinned savages," are seeking salvation.

Feb 1853

Orson Pratt publishes the text of the plural marriage sealing ceremony.

Apr 1853

Orson Pratt offers premortal explanation of race and ban.

May 8, 1853

Brigham expresses views on indigenous peoples.

Jul 21, 1854

Amasa Lyman, writing for Agnes Flake, asks for Green Flake to be returned.

Aug 19, 1854

Brigham comments on Green Flake's health.

Nov 4, 1854

Record of Amy's death.

Dec 3, 1854

Brigham maintains that honesty matters more than one's ethnic origin.

Feb 18, 1855

BY says Lord sent his angel to JS in First Vision.

May 10, 1855

In his diary, Charles C. Rich says he has a "negro."

Nov 2, 1855

David Lewis' probate record lists 2 Native American boys and 3 people of color.

Dec 9, 1855

Amasa Lyman uses the term "negro baboon."


George A. Smith expresses priesthood ban rationale.


Entry in Brigham's journal for Williams Camp's case.

Feb 5, 1856 - Mar 16, 1856

Samuel Woolley provides an account of disciplinary action for interracial marriage.

Mar 23, 1856

Brigham says to "keep blacks out."

Mar 23, 1856

Brigham considers "children of Ham" to be destined for "perpetual slavery."

Jun 16, 1856

Edwin D. Woolley charges Williams Camp with kidnapping Dan (an African American).

Jun 16, 1856 - Jun 18, 1856

Elias Smith records his involvement in the Williams Camp court case.

Jul 10, 1856

Probate registration for Shepherd by Williams Camp.

Jul 10, 1856

Bill of sale documents transfer of a slave from Abraham O. Smoot to Thomas S. Williams.

Jul 10, 1856

William Taylor Dennis affidavit for Williams Camp's ownership of Shepherd.

Jul 10, 1856

Probate registry for Jerry, Caroline, and Tampian by Duritha Lewis.

Jul 10, 1856

Probate registration of Daniel Camp by Williams Camp.

Jul 10, 1856

Probate registration for Shepherd by Diannah Camp.

Nov 3, 1856

Lowell Daily Citizen and News reports that Quaku Walker Lewis died of dropsy.


Mississippi's 1857 codes on slave criminal offenses.

Jan 8, 1857

John Brown lists a servant as one of his assets.

Jan 8, 1857

In a consecration deed, William Taylor Dennis lists an "African Servant."

Apr 12, 1857

Lehi Ward records include baptismal record for Nancy Lines Dennis.

Apr 12, 1857

Entry for Betty Brown's rebaptism in the Lehi Ward's records indicates that she is "colored".

Aug 9, 1857

Brigham includes "n---er stealing" among the "treasonous" actions of which other Americans could be accused.


John Taylor disparages abolitionists and underground railroad.


John Taylor disparages abolitionism and "n---er stealing."


Thomas Cobb says that there are not laws against raping an enslaved woman in the United States.

Jan 24, 1858

Ezra T. Benson holds that the Saints will not involve themselves in freeing Black people from enslavement.

Aug 23, 1858

Abraham Lincoln rejects black equality with white Americans.

Sep 21, 1858

Abraham Lincoln stated that he found white people superior to Black people.


Nelson Winch Green reports Smith's recollections of the existence of enslavement of indigenous peoples in Utah.


In a history of Indiana, John B. Dillon lists Indiana Territory slave laws.

Aug 10, 1859

Deseret News provides summary of court case A. B. Miller v. Thomas S. Williams over the ownership of two slaves.

Aug 24, 1859

Deseret News provides summary of Miller v. Williams as of August, 24, 1859.

Oct 9, 1859

Brigham says that Black people cannot hold priesthood office because of the curse of Cain.


Martha Ann Morris is listed in Green Flake's household in the 1860 census.


The 1860 Census includes entry for Marinda Redd.


Pro-slavery advocate Nathan Lord argues that the curse of Cain was perpetuated through intermarriage with Ham's line.

Jan 3, 1860

Brigham offers to buy enslaved Black man in order to free him.

Feb 19, 1860

John Taylor chides Latter-day Saints for dishonesty that he believes is typical to Black people.

Jun 1, 1860

1860 US census schedule 2 for Salt Lake County includes enslaved individuals.

Jun 11, 1860

The 1880 U.S. Census lists Rebecca Bentley (Meads) as a person of mixed-race.

Jun 13, 1860

US 1860 census schedule 2 for Davis County includes enslaved individuals.

Aug 14, 1860

The 1860 census includes Green Flake's family.

Aug 30, 1860

US 1860 Census includes entry for Nancy Lines Dennis.

Oct 8, 1860

Brigham says "we are all the children of one Father, whether we be … black or white."

Dec 1860

Horace Greeley records Brigham's comments on slavery connected to the curse of Ham.

Dec 24, 1860

South Carolina declares secession.

Dec 26, 1860

Brigham criticizes the effect of slavery on soil.

Dec 31, 1860

Brigham tells Horace Greeley that slavery is "of divine institution" and will persist until the curse of Ham is removed.


The Parowan Ward's tithing records include John Burton.

Jan 1, 1861

N. B. Johnson inquires whether mixed-race ancestry makes him ineligible for priesthood.

Mar 3, 1861

BY mentions First Vision; gives JS age at 14.

Jul 28, 1861

Brigham rejects abolitionists in the North and the Southern slaveholders alike.

Sep 25, 1861

Brigham Young says he would confer any blessing possible on Isaac Manning.

Feb 19, 1862

Brigham seeks to "view everybody and everything as it is before God."

Jan 1, 1863

Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation.

Mar 8, 1863

Brigham says "whites will be cursed" for their "abuse" of Black people "unless they repent."

Mar 8, 1863

Brigham says that interracial marriage warrants death.

Aug 9, 1863

Harvard Professor Louis Agassiz gives opinion on the morality of "half-breeds."

Oct 6, 1863

Brigham attributes civil war to those who "wish to raise their negroes" while others "wish to. . . almost worship them."

Jan 18, 1865

John Taylor leaves the question of liberation of Black people due to a "higher law" to other parties.

Feb 1, 1865

Thirteenth amendment to the US Constitution abolishes slavery.

Jun 1, 1865

RLDS release revelation authorizing ordination of black people.

Aug 10, 1865

Terms of surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia.

Oct 8, 1865

George A. Smith notes that some wrongly think the Civil War was caused by "the almighty negro."

Jan 19, 1866

1852 Utah territorial act concerning Native American slavery.

Aug 19, 1866

Brigham explains priesthood ban doctrine.

Aug 20, 1866

Andrew Johnson's proclamation of the end of hostilities with the South.


Paul de Lagarde offers reprint of MS Leiden regarding Ephrem's view of Ham's blackness.

Sep 18, 1867

Deseret News reports on minstrel scene as part of a performance.

Apr 8, 1868

Erastus Snow supports citizenship and full privileges for Black people in America.

May 1868

1868 Relief Society instructions outline duties of "deaconesses."


Catherine Waite cites Brigham's quote against abolitionism.

Sep 25, 1869

RWH cites BY's quote to Greeley about black people.

Dec 19, 1869

OP retells First Vision.

Dec 25, 1869

Brigham teaches Lorenzo Young that nobody was neutral in the war of heaven and teaches the curse of Cain.

Mar 19, 1870

Mobile Weekly Tribune reports on three Black Latter-day Saints in Mobile.

Apr 9, 1871

Brigham teaches that Cain was cursed with black skin.

Jul 26, 1871

Deseret News editorial refers to Black people as "little better than savages."

Oct 25, 1871

The Ogden Junction reported that Moroni Able was ordained to the priesthood.

Oct 25, 1871

The Ogden Junction publishes obituary for Moroni Able.


T. B. H. Stenhouse says he heard W. W. Phelps say that Joseph Smith first learned about polygamy translating the BOA papyri.

Jan 12, 1873

George Q. Cannon states that God loves all, including Africans.

May 1, 1873

Eighth Ward Minutes record that Samuel Chambers is appointed assistant deacon.

Aug 5, 1873 - Mar 10, 1874

Smith, Picknell, Lindsey, and Leach describe duties of deacons.


Brown rejects Cain origin for peoples of African ancestry.

Jul 4, 1874

Brigham expresses that it is "the lot" of Black people to be servants.

Dec 8, 1874

Thomas C. Jones records Samuel Chambers' testimony.

Sep 3, 1875

Eight Black Saints perform baptisms for the dead in the Salt Lake Temple in 1875.

Sep 3, 1875

Eight Black Saints perform baptisms for the dead in the Salt Lake Temple in 1875.

Dec 31, 1876

JT recounts JS First Vision, indicating that God revealed "events that are to transpire on this continent."

1878 - 1900

Joseph commanded by angel to use water not wine for sacrament.

Mar 2, 1879

JT declares purpose of First Vision in discussion of priesthood, missionary work, and enlightenment.

May 6, 1879

Smith reports on Able's mixed-race heritage.

May 31, 1879

Zebedee Coltrin and Abraham Smoot defend priesthood ban.

May 31, 1879

Abraham Smoot recalls that Joseph told him that Black members should not be ordained to the priesthood.

May 31, 1879

Abraham Smoot recalls that Joseph told him that Black members should not be ordained to the priesthood.

Jun 4, 1879

First Presidency meeting minutes record John Taylor's conclusion that Elijah Able was ordained before the "word of the Lord was fully understood."

Jun 4, 1879

John Taylor states that he thought Abel's ordination was a mistake.

Jun 1, 1880

The U.S. Census reports that Harriet Church was listed as white and married to Thomas Church with eight children in Utah in 1880.

Oct 10, 1880

John Taylor comments on importance of submitting decisions to body of Church.


FS recites conventional thought re: premortal justification of restriction.


EBS justifies priesthood ban in poem using premortal unworthiness explanation.

Jun 12, 1881

Alexander Doniphan describes the Mormon-Missouri War.

Nov 20, 1881

George Q. Cannon articulates the priesthood restriction.


Taylor attributes priesthood restriction to Cain's descendance through Ham's wife.

Apr 13, 1882

Los Angeles Herald says that there are Black Saints and "The Prophet made no distinction as to race, color or previous condition of servitude.

Apr 30, 1882

Omaha Daily Bee mentions Latter-day Saint racial attitudes toward Black people and the baptism of slaves.

Oct 1883

Missouri Supreme Court cites infertility as reason to ban interracial marriage.

Oct 25, 1883

H. M. Turner comments on mixed-race marriage in 19th-century Utah.

Oct 25, 1883

H. M. Turner references Brigham explaining the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Dec 13, 1883

Jackson County Banner reports on Elijah Able's missionary visit to Indiana.

Dec 20, 1883

Emporia Republican disparages Black Mormons and claims they join for polygamy.


William Smith recounts Joseph Smith's First Vision account.

Nov 14, 1884

Chattanooga Daily Times profiles the lives of Black Saints moving to Utah.

Dec 13, 1884

George Q. Cannon expresses vision of kingdom of God, assuming blacks will not be members.

Dec 27, 1884

Jane Manning James was offered to be adopted by Joseph and Emma Smith.

Dec 27, 1884

Jane Manning James indicates that her race was through Ham.

Dec 27, 1884

James requests Taylor to perform an adoption for her to Joseph and Emma.

Dec 27, 1884

Jane Manning James requests endowment and adoption to Smith family.

Dec 31, 1884

Deseret News reports death of Elijah Able.

Feb 4, 1885

JSR comments on hesitance for black baptism and black membership prohibition.

Jun 3, 1885

Deseret News commenter theorizes on descendants of Cain.

Apr 1888

Henry Carroll recalls "Black" Pete's activities in Kirtland.

Jun 16, 1888

Jane Manning James receives letter from Angus Cannon with a recommend to do baptisms for the dead.

Dec 12, 1889

Manifesto (Official Declaration 1) declares an end to polygamy.

Feb 7, 1890

Jane Manning James writes to Joseph F. Smith about receiving the endowment, about adoption, and about being sealed to Walker Lewis.

Oct 1, 1890

Abraham H. Cannon recalls that Brigham told Lorenzo Snow that blacks couldn't hold priesthood through premortal actions.

Oct 1, 1890

Heber J. Grant records that Lorenzo Snow was glad that revelation could bring a change to the priesthood ban.

Oct 6, 1890

Official text of Wilford Woodruff's 1890 manifesto ending plural marriage.

Nov 14, 1891

Wilford Woodruff describes in his speech how government threats catalyzed revelation for the Manifesto.

Nov 15, 1892

In a Church periodical, George Q. Cannon states that priesthood ordinations "have been done by Elders when they thought children were likely to die."

Feb 2, 1893

CW says JA says he heard JS say God touched his eyes in the vision.

Mar 25, 1893

George Q. Cannon notes the lack of interracial marriage in Utah.


ES late reminiscence of hearing First Vision.

Jan 15, 1894

Zina D. H. Young alludes to James's request to receive sealing/endowment.

Feb 14, 1894

William J. Flake's submission for the Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia.

Apr 14, 1894

George Q. Cannon articulates premortal designation for lineage.

May 18, 1894

Jane Manning James is attached as a "Servitor for eternity to the Prophet Joseph Smith."

Jun 1, 1894

Lydia Alder records Jane Manning James's patriarchal blessing being read during a May 1894 Women's Meeting.

Jul 15, 1894

Juvenile Instructor rejects knowledge of neutrality in premortality.

Jul 15, 1894

ES reminiscence of hearing of FV, with God the Father Pointing to JC who was in his likeness.

Oct 16, 1894

Woodruff attributes priesthood restriction to Cain's murder of Abel.

Aug 22, 1895

George Q. Cannon supports upholding restriction in mixed-race scenarios to avoid "complications."

Aug 22, 1895

Cannon states that Joseph taught that the seed of Cain could not receive the priesthood.

Dec 19, 1895

Le Roy Snow offers premortal explanation for certain classes.

Mar 14, 1896

Broad Ax newspaper cites Republican operative who supports Samuel Chambers being in legislature.

Oct 5, 1896

Richards says that Joseph taught that the "seed of Cain" would not receive their "final redemption" until after the "seed of Abel . . . should all have their opportunity."

May 31, 1897

Salt Lake Tribune identifies Green Flake as a "slave."

Jul 20, 1897

Salt Lake Tribune gives a description of Green Flake, "the only colored survivor of the band of '47," as a "vigorous, broad-shouldered, good-natured, bright old gentleman."

Dec 16, 1897

Cannon states that he was told by John Taylor in Nauvoo about Joseph Smith's priesthood ban teachings.

Dec 31, 1897

Edward Stevenson writes a late recollection of the First Vision of Joseph Smith.

Mar 25, 1899

Broad Ax reports on Alex Bankhead and Marinda Redd's faithfulness to Mormonism.

May 9, 1899

Missionaries tell Broad Ax of kind treatment by Black Americans in South.

Oct 2, 1899

Salt Lake Herald-Republican describes some of Jane Manning James's life in the Church.

Dec 30, 1899

Deseret Evening News debates on what ordinances black people can receive based on Brigham's language.


Thomas W. Young relays premortal explanation that Church leaders use to justify restriction.

Mar 1, 1900

Cannon cites what John Taylor told him in Nauvoo about his conversation with Joseph about the priesthood ban.

Aug 18, 1900

GQC cites reports from BY and JS justifying priesthood ban.

Oct 6, 1900

Grant tells a morality story using a minstrel show and n-word.

Feb 4, 1901

United States Census Bureau bulletin on Utah censuses 1850-1900 records State population by decade.


James recorded she performed baptisms for the dead for her ancestors.


Jane Manning James records that Emma Smith offered to adopt her.

Jan 2, 1902

Jane Manning James mentioned not being satisfied with adoption to Joseph Smith as a servant, and she requested sealing blessings again.

Jan 2, 1902

Smith expresses "one drop" rule on temple/priesthood access for Black people as an opinion.

Jan 2, 1902

John H. Smith thinks that those who have dominant white ancestry should be allowed to go to the temple.

Jan 2, 1902

Brigham denied Elijah Able's endowment.

Jan 23, 1902

The Spanish Fork Press announces Alex Bankhead's death.

Aug 31, 1903

Jane Manning James asks J. F. Smith for her endowment.

Oct 22, 1903

The Deseret News announces Green Flake's death in 1903.

Oct 23, 1903

The Salt Lake Tribune announces Green Flake's death.

Nov 1, 1903

Salt Lake Tribune references Able's relationship with Joseph.

Nov 28, 1903

DN repudiates SLT report on EB's funeral.

Dec 17, 1903

Deseret News explains black people's place in heaven.

Apr 7, 1905

Salt Lake Telegram notes attendance of Jane Manning James and her brother Isaac at April 1905 General Conference.

Apr 9, 1905

JFS uses story of GW to show black people should not outdo white people in courtesy.

Apr 7, 1906

J. Golden Kimball says same persecutors of LDS are also lynchers.

Jan 31, 1907

JFS rejects premortal explanation, affirms Cain explanation.


Reprint of Wentworth Letter, including 1842 FV account, in History of the Church series.

Apr 16, 1908

Deseret Evening News obituary celebrates Jane Manning James for her faithfulness and friendships.

Apr 21, 1908

Deseret News reports funeral of Jane Manning James.

Aug 26, 1908

Able and James were denied temple blessings by Brigham, Taylor, Woodruff, and Joseph F. Smith.

Aug 26, 1908

Joseph F. Smith states that all ordinations of Black people must be rendered null and void.

Aug 26, 1908

Joseph Fielding Smith states that Joseph declared Able's ordination "null and void."

Oct 4, 1909

David O. McKay uses "negro" to describe those who reject importance of labor.

Dec 1, 1909

Nelson Ritchie tells John Whitaker that his children had been sealed.

Dec 1, 1909

John Whitaker cites "one drop" rule in justifying restricting Nelson Ritchie from receiving sealing.

Dec 1, 1909

John Whitaker cites "one drop" rule in justifying restricting Nelson Ritchie from receiving sealing.

Apr 1910

MIHH late recollection of JS First Vision where "the Prophet's countenance lightened up."

Aug 31, 1910

Richard Barry comments on LDS views on black people in 20th-century.

Jan 1, 1912

James E. Talmage writes that ordinances are performed by proxy for the dead.

Apr 4, 1915

MJB argues for race as a product of premortal designation.

Apr 7, 1916

Rey Pratt hopes for eradication of "racial feelings."

Oct 8, 1916

Walter P. Monson uses "descendants of Cain" to chide those who fail to warn their neighbor.

Oct 4, 1918

HJG uses story to mock black people, uses n-word.


Biographical sketch of Elijah Able's life provided by Andrew Jenson in his Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia.


Jenson gives date for Able's ordination as an Elder and a Seventy.

Apr 1921

Joseph Fielding Smith is sustained as Church historian/recorder at the April 1921 General Conference.

Jan 25, 1922

JET invokes Cain to explain priesthood ban origins.

Oct 6, 1922

Charles Penrose suggests that capacity to recognize truth is rooted in race.


Record of Nancy Dennis' burial in Spanish Ford indicating that she was a "Negro".

May 10, 1924

Deseret News describes Samuel and Amanda Chambers as being a worthy, generous couple.

Apr 4, 1925

Charles Nibley celebrates emancipation of slavery and overthrow of part of Constitution.

May 3, 1926

Pageant depicts Mormons in same light as "negroes."


BHR recounts First Vision, reproduces and cites material from 1838 and 1842 FV accounts.


Joseph Fielding Smith attributes priesthood ban to Joseph Smith's teachings.


Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia biography of Green Flake.

Apr 7, 1939

George F. Richards attributes blackness to premortal unworthiness.

Jan 25, 1940

J. Reuben Clark proposes that the Twelve review past statements and make a ruling on whether "one drop" of blood disqualifies someone from receiving the priesthood.


Sanpete County records include transcription of the indenture of a Native American boy.

Sep 1941

JCM writes to JJM advising segregation of blood in blood banks.

Jun 23, 1942

FP tells ETB to make accommodations for white Church members' discomfort with Blacks.

Mar 1944

Elder Feramorz Y. Fox concludes that members kept their property after consecrating it in the 1850s.

Jun 30, 1944

John A. Widstoe cites premortal unworthiness that black skin could be a mark.


Elder Harold B. Lee gives a preexistence rationale for the priesthood ban, advocates kindness, and discourages intermarriage.

Aug 31, 1945

JAW rejects notions of "master race."

Apr 6, 1946

Harold B. Lee celebrates teaching against racism at time of WWII.

Apr 6, 1946

CEY uses allegations of miscegenation advocacy as example of "motive questioning."


President J. Reuben Clark, Jr. proposes organization and responsibilities for Black Church members in specially organized branches.

May 5, 1947

First Presidency tells Spongberg that the Church makes no effort to proselytize black people.

Jun 26, 1947

Lowry Nelson replies to Heber Meeks and references past instances of racism, didn't realize was a policy.

Jun 26, 1947

Lowry Nelson references the premortal life as one of the reasons for the priesthood ban.

Jul 17, 1947

The First Presidency explains rationale for priesthood ban in a letter to Lowry Nelson.

Jul 23, 1947

Heber Meeks mentions priesthood ban/adjacent teachings as potential reasons to stay out of Cuba.

Sep 30, 1947

Negro Digest criticizes Church for priesthood ban.

Oct 4, 1947

GFR uses black people as cautionary tale on valiance.

Oct 8, 1947

LN criticizes traditions of ban.

Nov 3, 1947

David O. McKay explains that denying the priesthood to Black Saints is part of the eternal plan of God, based on the book of Abraham and related to factors in premortal life.

Nov 12, 1947

The First Presidency warns Lowry Nelson to "re-orient your thinking."

Apr 12, 1948

J. Reuben Clark advocates segregation in blood banks "to protect the purity of the blood streams of the people of this Church."

Aug 12, 1948

HJ and RB reject notions that "white blood" differs from "black blood."


Historian Isaac Mendelsohn states that slavery existed in the ancient Near East.


1949 First Presidency provides a statement on the priesthood and temple restriction for Black Saints to an anonymous correspondent.

Aug 17, 1949

LEB produces typescript of 1949 FP statement.

1950 - 1959

Arthur M. Richardson compiles quotations from Church sources to defend segregation.

Apr 6, 1950

David O. McKay notes that individual freedom is undermined through racial animus.

Nov 20, 1950

Chicago Daily Tribune announces that the American National Red Cross will not segregate blood.

Jul 31, 1951

DrWB dismisses racial identification with blood.

Aug 17, 1951

William E. Berrett provides expanded version of 1949 First Presidency statement dated August 17, 1951.

Aug 17, 1951

Berrett (1951) includes more extensive version of 1949 statement in John J. Stewart text.

Apr 4, 1952

Eldred G. Smith notes that descendants of Cain are not eligible to receive priesthood.


Masters' account of white pastor leading newly formed congregation of Black Christians.


Masters concluded that ordination of Black Baptist clergy in Kentucky began in the 1820s.

Mar 3, 1953

In correspondence with O. Boyd Mathias, Rowena J. Miller, on behalf of J. Reuben Clark, counselor in the First Presidency, states that blood is separated by race at LDS hospital but that Clark gives never gives guidance on blood transfusions.

Apr 1953

WRB notes that LDS Hospital segregates black and white blood banks.

Jan 17, 1954

Leroy Duncan notes David O. McKay lifting "black until proven white."

Jan 19, 1954

David O. McKay notes experience dealing with the priesthood ban.

Mar 10, 1954

David O. McKay alludes to lifting the "black til proven white" restriction in South Africa.

May 17, 1954

WB inquires about ban study committee.

Aug 27, 1954

Mark E. Petersen justifies segregation based on beliefs about consequences of interracial marriage.

Aug 27, 1954

Elder Mark E. Peterson condemns the civil rights movement and defends Latter-day Saint theology and practices related to priesthood and temple restrictions for Black Saints.

Apr 6, 1955

Clifford E. Young celebrates lack of racial animosity in congregation in Hawaii.


Bruce R. McConkie defends priesthood ban based on scriptural interpretation.


Bruce R. McConkie publishes several articles containing common Latter-day Saint views about Black people in his 1958 volume, Mormon Doctrine.


Bruce R. McConkie says prophets have own opinions and prejudices.

Apr 19, 1961

Lee contests legitimacy of Able's ordination.

Feb 1962

Preston Nibley republishes JS 1842 Wentworth Letter in IE, including First Vision account, in full.


Joseph F. Smith tells Eugene England that no revelation exists on premortal explanation for ban.

Apr 10, 1963

Joseph Fielding Smith reports that Joseph instituted priesthood and temple restriction.

Jun 7, 1963

Wallace Turner reports on early 1960s efforts to lift restriction.

Oct 5, 1963

Hugh B. Brown says "load him with bitter racial prejudice and you have a Disraeli."


Hosea Stout describes a court case about slavery.


David O. McKay approves the policy that baptisms for the dead for Black people be performed by non-Blacks as proxies "if this can be accomplished without offense."


LaMar S. Williams is instructed by President David O. McKay and his counselors that those living in polygamy could be baptized but "were not to engage further into this practice."


LaMar Williams describes instruction received by David O. McKay and other church leaders prior to beginning his assignment as "Presiding Elder of Nigeria."


PRC MA thesis including first published version of 1832 FV account.

May 18, 1965

LA suggests Church isn't racist for its support to other ethnic minorities.

Aug 17, 1965

AD holds that Christ supersedes all racial "cursing."


Leonard J. Arrington describes the Church's Public Works Department that employed people for building the Salt Lake Temple and other structures.


James B. Allen cites evidence supporting that the First Vision had relevance in the lifetime of Joseph.

Aug 1966

In his PhD thesis, David L. Brewer presented quantitative and qualitative data from Utah elites about their perspectives on civil rights and the priesthood and temple resrictions.

Sep 1966

Armand L. Mauss compares Latter-day Saints with Catholics and Protestants and finds that they are slightly more racist than some, and slightly less racist than others.

Nov 22, 1966

Jim Todd offers analysis of ramifications of priesthood ban being lifted.

Sep 29, 1967

Ezra T. Benson says God only knows why no priesthood for "seed of Cain."

Oct 9, 1967

Bruce R. McConkie teaches that Black people are "lacking spirituality" and that the "doctrine of pre-existence" explains the existence of Black people.


Jacob Hamblin records instances of Native American slavery.


BYU Studies full issue of Spring 1969 devoted to First Vision accounts.


TGM mentions institutional support behind project to catalogue known First Vision accounts.

Oct 30, 1969

South Idaho Press writes about legal support for University of Wyoming Black football players.

Nov 29, 1969

Ernest Wilkinson maintains BYU is equitable to black students.

Dec 15, 1969

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency saying that the origins of ban are not known.

Dec 25, 1969

First Presidency counselor Hugh B. Brown is reported by the Salt Lake Tribune as saying the priesthood ban "will change in the not-too-distant future."

Dec 25, 1969

LK quotes HBB's prediction re: lifting the ban.


Stephen G. Taggart argues that Joseph Smith originated the priesthood/temple ban in response to conditions in the South and later developed a theological justification in the Book of Abraham.

Jan 10, 1970

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency saying that the origins of ban are not known.

Jan 21, 1970

SCOTUS rules that schools that segregate aren't tax-exempt.

Feb 7, 1970

Merced Wards help a Black Baptist Church with a building project.

Feb 14, 1970

"Church Section" of Deseret News reports on release of Joseph Fielding Smith as Church historian/recorder in February 1970; notes he was called March 17, 1921.

Apr 1970

JBA provides chart harmonizing First Vision accounts.

Apr 1970

James B. Allen discusses First Vision accounts in an official Church periodical.

Jun 21, 1970

NYT reports on conservative/liberal discussion on priesthood restriction.

Jul 11, 1970

IRS announces that private schools that racially discriminate will lose their tax exempt status.

Nov 25, 1970

Caleb A. Shreeve, Sr. writes letter to First Presidency stating that Joseph Smith withdrew the priesthood from Elijah Able.

Dec 31, 1970

The Church uses Cain justification in black ordinations in Brazil.

Mar 25, 1971

Berry was endowed and sealed after her death.

May 12, 1972

Wallace Turner cites statistics regarding percentage of Mormons/non-Mormons who think blacks want to destroy Church.

Jul 8, 1972

Wallace Turner reports Gordon B. Hinckley as saying that the lifting of the ban will require a revelation to the president of the Church.

Aug 21, 1972

Dan L. Thrapp reports Harold B. Lee saying that only the Lord could answer whether there was any possibility of a change in the priesthood ban.

Sep 26, 1972

John Keahey reports President Harold B. Lee as saying that it's only a matter of time before the Negro achieves full status in the church.

Jan 1973

Lester Bush offers source on how John Taylor felt Joseph was wrong on Elijah Able's ordination.


Hugh W. Nibley concludes that the Priesthood restriction has its origin with God.


Joseph Anderson writes letter on behalf of the First Presidency to Herbert A. Ford reassuring him that the priesthood restriction will someday be removed.


Lester Bush reports on the Presidency counselors discussing lifting the ban after seeing the writings of Stephen G. Taggart.

Apr 1973

LEB writes seminal article offering critical origin analysis of priesthood/temple restriction.

Dec 30, 1973

President Spencer W. Kimball records in his journal his ordination as president of the Church.

Feb 1974

Immediately following his ordination as president of the Church, Spencer W. Kimball states that a change in the priesthood restriction could come, but only through revelation.

May 15, 1974

SCOTUS ruling refers to the IRS notification to Bob Jones University that they are no longer eligible for tax exempt status.

Jun 9, 1974

Russell M. Nelson recounts a dream where Harold B. Lee told him that he would have lifted the ban if he had continued to live.

Jul 24, 1974

The Miami News write about perceived legal pressure to change church policy.

Dec 1974

GML illustrates how the standardization of Sunday School was an ongoing process from the 1800s into the early 1900s.


James R. Clark's book entitled "Messages of the First Presidency" omits letters of the First Presidency discussing Black Saints and the priesthood.


MG discusses his efforts to test his celibacy with young women.

Mar 11, 1977

US President Jimmy Carter meets with Church President Spencer W. Kimball and Latter-day Saint members of the House of Representatives at the White House. The topic of conversation is unknown.

Jun 1977

BRM tells SWK that there is no scriptural barrier to lifting the ban.


LeGrand Richards discusses the role of Brazil in Official Declaration 2.

Apr 1978

Newell Bringhurst argues that the origins of the priesthood ban are unclear.

Jun 8, 1978

First Presidency letter from June 8, 1978 announcing the revelation on the priesthood.

Jun 9, 1978

Deseret News publishes First Presidency press release announcing the revelation on the priesthood.

Jun 9, 1978

Leonard Arrington reports an inquiry by Elder Neal A. Maxwell that suggested he was preparing a memorandum on the priesthood restriction for President Kimball.

Jun 10, 1978

In 1973, President Kimball described his thought and prayer and openness to revelation on the subject of the priesthood and temple ban.

Jun 11, 1978

US President Jimmy Carter praises the priesthood revelation.

Jun 13, 1978

Leonard J. Arrington records hearing a report that the construction of the Brazil temple was "one of the immediately precipitating factors of the new revelation."

Jun 13, 1978

Spencer W. Kimball said the Church won't extend the priesthood to women.

Jun 17, 1978

Church News shares comments of Monroe Fleming and other Black members about the announcement of the priesthood revelation.

Jun 17, 1978

Church News publishes priesthood revelation.

Jun 18, 1978

Church spokesman Don LeFevre affirms that, despite the reversal of the priesthood and temple ban, mixed marriages are still discouraged.

Jun 22, 1978

BYU professor Edwin O. Haroldsen supervises students in a survey finding that the overwhelming majority of Utah County residents are pleased with the news of the priesthood revelation.

Jun 27, 1978

Leonard J. Arrington reports a meeting with Jay M. Todd about the circumstances of the priesthood revelation.

Jun 30, 1978

Elder Bruce R. McConkie, apostle, gives a detailed account of the events surrounding the revelation on the priesthood.

Jul 4, 1978

Fundamentalist Ogden Kraut questions the legitimacy of the priesthood revelation.

Jul 23, 1978

Joseph LeMoine Jensen criticizes the Church for lifting priesthood and temple restrictions.

Jul 28, 1978

The Associated Press reports an interview with J. LaMoine Jenson, under the pseudonym of Joseph Jensen, wherein he gives his reasons for opposing the priesthood revelation.

Aug 22, 1978

TGM writes that JS saw both angels and God during the First Vision.

Sep 30, 1978

Elder N. Eldon Tanner announces the First Presidency announcing the priesthood revelation at General Conference.

Oct 23, 1978

At a mission conference in Johannesburg, South Africa, President Spencer W. Kimball describes the events of the priesthood revelation in his own voice.

Oct 30, 1978

Spencer W. Kimball dedicates the São Paulo Brazil Temple.

Nov 4, 1978

Church News reports that two couples have received visas to go to Nigeria for one year to "do religious service."

Nov 4, 1978

In his first address to Saints from South Africa, Rhodesia, and South West Africa, President Spencer W. Kimball declares that the work of the Lord must go forward and those who fight against it "will find disillusionment and misery."


Ronald K. Esplin states his view that Brigham's views on priesthood ban were rooted in revelation.


Esplin concludes that Brigham's believed the priesthood ban was rooted in revelation.


Ronald K. Esplin concludes that the priesthood and temple restriction was introduced by Joseph Smith in Nauvoo.


Hartley writes that the main work of deacons in the late 19th century was to care for the meetinghouses.


Hartley writes that Amanda Chambers served as a "deaconess."


Joseph Freeman tells of his experiences following his having been the first Black man ordained to the priesthood in modern times.


Bruce R. McConkie replaces article on "Negroes" in the 1979 edition of Mormon Doctrine with a summary of the revelation on the priesthood, and modifies the article on "Ham."


Joseph Freeman reports that unauthorized ordination of a Black Saint sowed division in the Genesis Group.

Jan 6, 1979

Gerry Avant cites Spencer W. Kimball saying that the revelation was not received by his predecessors because "the time had not yet come for it."

Mar 5, 1979

Elder Carlos E. Asay informs the two missionary couples serving in Nigeria and Ghana that men who are living in polygamy should not be baptized.

Sep 28, 1979

Anthony Obinna recalls his baptism and the organization of the first branch in Aboh, Nigeria on 21 November 1978.


William Wilson and Richard Paulsen offer history of Mormon use of Cain account.

Apr 6, 1980

Bruce R. McConkie celebrates "seed of Cain" receiving the priesthood.

Dec 1980

Brian A. Espenshied is called to be mission president of the new Africa West Mission.

Dec 31, 1980

AO writes letters asking for the gospel to come to Nigeria.


Bruce R. McConkie gives an account of the powerful confirming experience of the Twelve following Spencer W. Kimball's priesthood revelation, and its implications.

Jan 22, 1981

Elma Singleton Bradshaw records first baptisms in Aba, Nigeria.

May 6, 1981

LaMar and Nyal Williams report that in addition to the mission leaders, six or seven couples were serving in Nigeria and Ghana in May 1981.

May 6, 1981

LaMar Williams recounts the origins of the Genesis Group.

May 6, 1981

LaMar and Nyal Williams report how they were called to serve as missionaries in Nigeria.

May 6, 1981

LaMar and Nyal Williams discuss how baptisms were stopped for a while during their mission to Nigeria.

May 6, 1981

Lamar S. Williams grateful that he was called back home from Nigeria before the Biafra War broke out.


LeGrand Richards sees Wilford Woodruff at a meeting of General Authorities discussing the priesthood revelation.

May 17, 1982

Leonel de Séa Maia recalls that Gordon B. Hinckley said that the Lord had told him that the priesthood restriction was a type of test.


Bush cites statements of Lorenzo Snow on marriage and priesthood restrictions.


Peggy Petersen Barton relates the delight of Elder Mark E. Petersen after he learned the news of the revelation on the priesthood.

Jan 1985

MVB Jr. publishes article in Ensign on the different First Vision accounts.

Sep 1, 1985

First Presidency counselor Gordon B. Hinckley dedicates the Johannesburg South Africa Temple.


Reed L. Clegg organizes Friends of West Africa, the first known Latter-day Saint non-profit humanitarian organization focused on West Africa.

Jan 1986

MVB Jr. follow-up article to Jan 1985 piece on the First Vision; details more known accounts of FV and provides additional historical context.

Jul 1986

Breck England quotes Elder Marvin J. Ashton about his experience during the confirmation of the priesthood revelation.


Sheri L. Dew records Elder Ezra Taft Benson's feelings following the prayer confirming the revelation on the priesthood.


Jerald and Sandra Tanner criticize the fact that Official Declaration 2 is a statement that says "a revelation was received" rather than the text of the revelation itself.

Sep 22, 1987

Oscar W. McConkie Jr. describes circumstances and includes certificate of recognition for the Church in Zaire.

Oct 1987

Dennis N. Valdes argues that slavery in Mexico gradually declined.


Marion G. Romney describes the media impact of the news of the priesthood revelation.

May 21, 1988

Church News reports that First African stake outside of South Africa is formed in Aba, Nigeria.

Jun 5, 1988

The Associated Press interviews Neal A. Maxwell and Dallin H. Oaks about the reasons for lifting the priesthood and temple ban.

Oct 1988

Gordon B. Hinckley gives an account of the revelatory experience of the First Presidency and the Twelve on June 1, 1978.


Ralph Abernathy explains why Martin Luther King, Jr. engaged in extramarital affairs.

May 18, 1989

MDH comments on racial attitudes during mission to Cincinnati (esp. re: L/MH).

Oct 1, 1989

Julian M. Sanders writes a letter to Ezra Ezra Taft Benson citing Benson and David O. McKay in support of his opposition to a holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Oct 5, 1989

Steve Yozwiak reports comments on a letter from Julian M. Sanders to Ezra Taft Benson citing Church leaders and others to oppose a holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.

1990 - 1999

Richard Packham falsely claims to publish Spencer W. Kimball's "long-suppressed" priesthood revelation and then admits his fraud.

1990 - 1999

Richard Packham falsely claims to publish Spencer W. Kimball's "long-suppressed revelation on the Black Race and the Priesthood."


Glen G. Fisher heard Harold B. Lee promise two young ladies of African descent in South Africa that if they married in their race and were faithful, they would have every blessing of the gospel.


Stephen Ochs provides account of reaction to Father Tolton as a Black priest.


Eleanor Knowles summarizes and quotes Elder Howard W. Hunter's account of the experiences surrounding the priesthood revelation.


Helvécio Martins describes experiences leading up to his call as a Seventy.


Helvécio Martins recounts blessings and spiritual impressions that foreshadowed the priesthood revelation.


Francis M. Gibbons recounts the aftermath of a meeting of the First Presidency and the Twelve where LeGrand Richards saw Wilford Woodruff.

Apr 1995

Sondra Jones describes the Indian slave trade in Utah before 1852.


Sterling M. McMurrin reports that he arranged meetings with the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and drafted a First Presidency statement on civil rights read at the October 1963 General Conference.


David O. McKay describing the priesthood and temple ban as a practice rather than a doctrine, as reported by Sterling M. McMurrin.

Apr 1996

RLA publishes article in Ensign talking about First Vision accounts; answers common criticisms, provides historical context.

May 1996

Elder David B. Haight describes the confirmation he received in the prayer following President Spencer W. Kimball's receiving the priesthood revelation.


Johannes Glenthøj gives an analysis of possible Cain deaths.

Jan 5, 1997

E. Gary Smith reports that his father, Eldred G. Smith, concluded at some point that Black Saints should be assigned to the tribe of Manasseh.


Leonard J. Arrington reports that an apostolic committee found no scriptural support for restriction.


Lester E. Bush recounts conversation where he understood that President Harold B. Lee had received a manifestation that the priesthood ban was "divinely instituted."


Edwin B. Firmage claims Hugh B. Brown proposed to lift the priesthood restriction but Harold B. Lee pressured him to sign a statement saying it was "doctrinally based."


Rendell Mabey describes the events surrounding the first baptisms in Nigeria.


L. Petersen recalls his discussion with L.E. Young about a "strange account" of the First Vision.

May 18, 1998

Larry Stammer provides report on initial efforts to repudiate the ban.

May 19, 1998

The Church states that the LA Times story about an earlier plan to retract "doctrines concerning blacks" is incorrect.


Sondra Jones describes Native American enslavement in Utah.


Christopher Beckham cites Frank Masters' statement that ordination of Black Baptist clergy in Kentucky began in the 1820s.


Christopher Beckham cites Frank Masters' account of a white pastor leading a newly formed congregation for Black Christians.


Janath Russell Cannon and Edwin Q. "Ted" Cannon, Jr. relate the events of the first baptisms in Nigeria.

Oct 19, 1999

In 1999, Richard Jackson recalls McKay saying Lord told him not to inquire about ban further.


Nibley links the "blackness" of Cain with the soot and gime of metalworking.


Harvey notes that self-governance for separate Black Baptist congregations took root in the South after 1865.


History of the Cain-as-cursed-wanderer motif.


Gay Robins gives an overview of color symbolism in ancient Egypt and the colorization of foreigners.


HALOT entry for ʾāreṣ.


Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament entry for kōl giving its various definitions.


CES teacher's manual that recommends scholarship on First Vision.

Mar 11, 2001

Kathy Erickson claims that in 1978 the federal government threatened loss of tax exemptions unless it allowed Black members full membership.

Apr 5, 2001

Church spokesperson Bruce L. Olsen refutes the idea that the priesthood revelation had anything to do with "federal tax policy or any other secular law."


Historian D. Michael Quinn reports J. Reuben Clark's recommendation that branches for Black Saints be created and that men be organized into preparatory Aaronic priesthood groups.


Susan and Harvey Black discuss how Able participated in baptisms for the dead in Nauvoo.


Stephen Haynes argues that associating Biblical curse language with Black people was common in the mid-nineteenth-century.


Haynes describes widespread explanation for black skin and slavery in the 1830's based on Noah's curse of Canaan.


Joseph highlights Lemuel Hayne's criticism of Canaan myth.


Margaret Blair Young and Darius Aidan Gray describe the priesthood ordinations and temple work of Black members following the priesthood revelation.


Chpt 3 in CES manual references 1832 and 1838 First Vision accounts.


JS summarizes LH's work as a Congregationalist minister.


Non-LDS scholar SP discusses First Vision.

Jan 17, 2004

The Church News reports the dedication of the first temple in Ghana, which is the second in Africa and the first in West Africa.


Emmanuel Kissi reports on perceptions of Church association with CIA in Ghana.


Spencer W. Kimball describes the strenuous effort required to receive revelation.


Edward L. Kimball reports that the First Presidency and the Twelve discussed and approved patriarchal blessings for Len and Mary Hope.


Edward L. Kimball quotes the accounts of several apostles who were present at the June 1, 1978 meeting where the revelation on the priesthood was confirmed.


Edward L. Kimball recounts Spencer W. Kimball's prayers in the temple and consultation with the First Presidency and the Twelve in the months prior to the announcement of the revelation on the priesthood.


Edward L. Kimball reports that Spencer W. Kimball praised the Hope couple for their faithfulness.


W. James Jacob describes how a racial priesthood ban was lifted in Fiji in 1955.


Edward L. Kimball writes that letters received in the few days after the priesthood revelation by Spencer W. Kimball were overwhelmingly positive.


According to Edward L. Kimball, Elder Delbert E. Stapley sustained the priesthood revelation.


Edward L. Kimball reports that Spencer W. Kimball received a letter from the First Presidency that Black Saints could receive patriarchal blessings.


Edward L. Kimball reports several individuals who had spiritual premonitions about the lifting of the priesthood ban.


Edward L. Kimball reports that Spencer W. Kimball asked Bruce R. McConkie to edit his account of the revelation to avoid possible misunderstanding.


Leonard J. Arrington stated that Harold B. Lee prayed in the temple about the ban and received the answer "not yet."


F. Burton Howard reported that Spencer W. Kimball had been praying about the priesthood and temple restriction for 15 years.


Richard D. Draper, S. Kent Brown, and Michael D. Rhodes identify "seed of Cain" with "skin pigmentation."

Feb 20, 2005

Joseph LaMoine Jenson, author of advertisement critical of priesthood restriction, becomes leader of the Apostolic United Brethren.

Aug 8, 2005

Church News reports dedication of first temple in Nigeria.

2006 - 2014

Donald Mayne reports on a First Presidency discussion to determine whether the son of Harriet Church could receive the priesthood.


Connell O'Donovan writes regarding Q. Walker Lewis's passing.

May 2006

Gordon B. Hinckley tells Church members "there is no basis for racial hatred . . . in this Church."


National Humanities Center collection of Works Progress Administration (WPA) accounts of formerly enslaved people.


Protests againts BYU's policies on Blacks carried out by University of Washington Black Student Union in March 1970.

Jul 20, 2007

President Boyd K. Packer describes the process of revelation involved in the priesthood revelation to interviewer Helen Whitney.

Jul 20, 2007

Elder Dallin H. Oaks describes to Helen Whitney his joy at the news and the process of revelation that guided the answers to prayer about the priesthood ban.


Mark E. Peterson notes an article that traces Priesthood ban to Brigham Young rather than Joseph Smith.


Richard Newman's biography highlights RA's experience with integrated Methodist revivals.


Richard S. Newman describes RA's departure from St. George's Church.


Edward L. Kimball states that by 1978 the pressure against the Church was relatively low.


Edward L. Kimball cites Spencer W. Kimball's statements that the Lord's timetable operates independent of pressure.


Matthew Bowman writes on Bigfoot/Cain connection.

Jun 14, 2008

R. Scott Lloyd reports on a Church celebration of the thirtieth anniversary of the priesthood revelation.

Mar 28, 2009

O'Donovan reports that Joseph Taylor states that Laura Berry passed as white.

Mar 28, 2009

Connell O'Donovan summarizes interracial marriage incident involving Laura Jane Berry.

Mar 28, 2009

Connell O'Donovan provides account of interracial marriage in the 19th-century Church.


J. Reuben Clarks records the Quorum of the Twelve disagreeing on the "one drop" of blood rule for priesthood exclusion.


J. Reuben Clark told that transfused blood disintegrates rapidly.


J. Reuben Clark told by doctors that LDS Hospital segregated blood and that blood changes after a certain amount of time.


J. Reuben Clark raises no objection to local church leaders joining "as individuals" a civic organization to "restrict and control negro settlement" in their stake.


Barbara Kennedy Law describes discussions of her father, David M. Kennedy, with President Spencer W. Kimball about lifting the priesthood and temple restriction from sub-Saharan Africa.


Heidi S. Swinton recounts President Thomas S. Monson's experiences surrounding the priesthood revelation.

Jun 2010

Thomas Guglielmo reports that the American Red Cross continued racial segregation of blood until 1950.

Jun 2010

Thomas Guglielmo reports that in 1941 the Red Cross officially implemented refused blood from Black donors.


Jane Manning James was "attached" to Joseph Smith as a "Servitor for eternity."


Black Latter-day Saint Keith N. Hamilton affirms that the priesthood ban "was both instituted and lifted by the Lord.


Christopher Rich argues that Utah's servitude law was intended to end slavery.


Joseph Smith Papers Editors explain the document history of the 1832 First Vision account.

Feb 29, 2012

The Church disavows teachings and doctrines expressed by BYU Professor Randy Bott in an interview with a Washington Post reporter.


John Turner comments on Brigham Young's initial egalitarian feelings.


Captain Moroni finds joy in keeping his people out of slavery.


The king of the Anti-Nephi-Lehis says his people will be slaves to the Nephites.


Deuteronomy 21:10-14 says that an Israelite cannot enslave a woman he captured in war and married.


Paul calls himself a servant (slave) of Jesus.


Deuteronomy 23:15-16 says that a person should not return a slave who escapes to them.


Deuteronomy 5:14-15 says that slaves should not work on the Sabbath.


Exodus 22:1-3 says that a man can be sold to pay for stolen property.


Exodus 20:10 says that slaves must honor the Sabbath.


Giddianhi invites the Nephites to become Gadianton Robbers.


Exodus 12:44 says that slaves are to celebrate Passover.


Nephi interacts with Zoram (a servant of Laban).


Deuteronomy 15: 12-18 gives codes for freeing slaves or making them a permanent member of the household.


Leah and Rachel give their slaves to Jacob as concubines.


Jeremiah 34:8-22 condemns Judahites who promised to free slaves but did not do so.


In a revelation, Joseph Smith said that no one should be in bondage to another.


Joseph Smith prophesies that slaves will rise up against their masters.


Genesis 24 describes Abraham's slave searching for a wife for Isaac.


Noah says Canaan will serve his brothers.


Genesis 37 says that Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt.


Exodus 23:12 says that slaves must rest on the Sabbath.


Exodus 21 lists slave laws for the Israelites.


Amos 2:6 condemns sellings others into slavery for profit.


Limhi says it is better to be slaves to the Nephites than to pay tribute to the Lamanites.


Leviticus 25:39-55 describes slave laws and laws redeeming slaves.


LDS proclamation on government says that it is not right to interfere with "bond-servants."


Jesus states that no one can serve two masters.


Genesis 10:15–20 (KJV) outlines the lineage of Ham and Canaan.


Official Declaration 2 describes the events that marked the official end to the priesthood ban.


Gospel of Matthew records Jesus mentioning Noah (Noe) and the Flood; likens it to 2nd Coming.


Genesis 8 (KJV), narrating the Flood.


Genesis 5:28–32 (KJV), narrating birth and life of Noah.


Genesis 9 (KJV), narrating the post-Flood life and death of Noah.


Noah was ordained to the priesthood by Methuselah.


Genesis 6 (KJV), narrating prelude to the Flood.


Genesis 7 (KJV), narrating account of the Flood.


Moses 8:8–30, the PoGP account of the life of Noah.


2 Peter 2:4–5 (KJV), mentions Noah as preacher of righteousness, and the flood upon the world.


1 Peter 3:18–21 (KJV) makes reference to Noah and eight others being save from the Flood, which is likened unto baptism.


Jesus mentions condition of the earth at the time of Noah (Noe).


Moses 7:42–46, account in the PoGP records Enoch seeing the Flood and Noah in vision.


Hebrews 11:6–7 (KJV), mentions Noah being warned by God of the Flood.


L. Petersen recounts L.E. Young's examination of a "strange account" of the First Vision.

Feb 1, 2013 - Feb 28, 2013

Connell O'Donovan writes that Hyrum Barton was excommunicated for his illicit marriage to Laura Jane Berry.

Feb 21, 2013

Armand Mauss discusses efforts to campaign church leadership to repudiate ban.

Feb 21, 2013

Armand L. Mauss provides background leading to ban repudiation campaign.

Mar 21, 2013

In a debate about Native American servitude in Utah, Orson Pratt voices opposition.

Dec 1, 2013

Gospel Topics Essay "Race and the Priesthood" recognizes slavery was legal in Utah territory.


Heather Andrea Williams describes how enslavers maintained control of slaves.


Russell W. Stevenson summarizes the subject matter of his documentary history of Black Saints in the global Church.


Stan Larson argues that J.F. Smith hid the 1832 First Vision account.

Nov 20, 2014

Lawrence J. Mackey describes South African mission policy in which he was "not allowed to proselyte" among Black people.


Reeve discusses historical reasons for the priesthood ban.


W. Paul Reeve summarizes his study relating the idea of a racialized 19th-century marginalization of Latter-day Saints to the history of the priesthood ban.


Matthew L. Harris and Newell G. Bringhurst summarize the contents of their documentary history of the priesthood and temple ban.


Oscar McConkie, Jr. provides unread paragraphs in a General Conference conference talk by President Spencer W. Kimball describing the priesthood revelation.

Jul 2015

Ryan Stuart Bingham argues in JMH that the "blackness" of Cain and Canaanites in Moses and Abraham referred to race and skin color.

Jul 24, 2015

George W. Romney is honored for his advocacy of civil rights as governor of Michigan in 1963.


Richard E. Turley Jr and Jeffrey G. Cannon observe that branch organization presidencies consisted of black and white members "working closely together."


Richard E. Turley Jr. and Jeffrey G. Cannon state that in 1968 it was the policy of the South African mission not to proselyte among Black people.

Feb 26, 2016

Elder M. Russell Ballard says that "gone are the days" when Church members should avoid hard questions.


Thomas S. Monson recalls the organization and early days of the Genesis Group.

Aug 15, 2017

Following violent demonstrations in Charlottesville, Virginia, the Church condemns white supremacy attitudes and actions.

Aug 17, 2017

Zandra Vranes speaks of her joy when she read a Church statement condemning "white supremacy" attitudes and behavior.


Historian Newell G. Bringhurst believes that William I. Appleby's "so-called journal" was written actually written in the mid 1850s.


Jeremy Talmage and Clinton D. Christensen tell of knowing and unknowing priesthood ordinations of Church members with seeming African heritage.


Leonard J. Arrington reports Gil Warner's account of Boyd K. Packer's description of the experience of the 1978 priesthood revelation.


ROB explains lack of documentation for JS's early visions, discusses reasons for that.

May 17, 2018

Jonathan Streeter publishes fake apology purporting to be from President Russell M. Nelson apologizing for the priesthood ban.

Jun 1, 2018

Brady McCombs reports on varied opinions of Church members following the 2018 "Be One Celebration."

Jun 2, 2018

President Dallin H. Oaks acknowledges pain of past priesthood and temple restriction, his joy at its end, and his hope for the future.


Reiter states that eight Black Saints participated in baptisms for the dead in 1875.


Jane Manning James is authorized by stake president to do baptisms for the dead in 1888.


Jane Manning James receives a patriarchal blessing from John Smith in 1889.


Jane Manning James is "attached as a Servitor for eternity to the Prophet Joseph Smith" in the Salt Lake Temple.


Jane Manning James receives a patriarchal blessing from Hyrum Smith in 1844.


Jane Manning James performs baptisms for the dead in 1888 and 1894.


Tonya Reiter describes how Samuel and Amanda Chambers arrange for a Norwegian temple worker to serve as proxies in baptisms for the dead for their friends and relatives.


Tonya S. Reiter describes register of white proxies and Black Saint requestors for baptisms for the dead.

Jan 2019

"Mormon Stories" article argues that the evidences supports Joseph Fielding Smith, or someone under his charge in the Church Historian's Office, tearing out the 3 pages of Letterbook 1.

Apr 2019

James Jones and Derek Knox begin hosting a podcast celebrating diversity in Latter-day Saint culture.

Jun 2019

David J. Garrow summarizes allegations against Martin Luther King re: alleged rape.

Aug 5, 2019

Church historian Snow comments on writing of race/priesthood essay.


Jane Elizabeth Manning James performs baptisms for family members in the Logan and Salt Lake temples.


Jane Elizabeth Manning James performs baptisms for family members in the Logan and Salt Lake temples.

Jan 5, 2020

RJ and SM discuss JS writing and record-keeping habits.

Jan 31, 2020

E. R. Shipp describes efforts of FamilySearch in behalf of African American genealogy research.

Apr 18, 2020

Robert M. Bowman Jr., argues that Joseph Fielding Smith knew about the 1832 First Vision account and he wanted "to be made public quietly under the most favorable possible circumstances."

Oct 3, 2020

Brady McCombs reports calls at General Conference for end to racism and violence.

Oct 3, 2020

Elder Dallin H. Oaks denounces racism and encourages the Saints to love their enemies.

Oct 27, 2020

President Dallin H. Oaks denounces racism and encourages peaceful resolution of conflicts.

Nov 3, 2020

Peggy Fletcher Stack reports comments of Black Latter-day Saints following President Dallin H. Oaks' mention that "Black Lives Matter."

Nov 17, 2020

Tad Walch reports joint effort of Black 14 Philanthropy and the Church to overcome past enmity and provide goods to food banks.

Nov 19, 2020

Jana Riess reports Adam Harris's and Carlene Fraser-Harris's statements about how President Oaks's BYU devotional address on racism fell short.


Church History Library policy generally prohibits release of sacred, private, and/or confidential information.


Stephen Smoot addresses Dan Vogel's argument about race in the Pearl of Great Price.


Dan Vogel argues that the Pearl of Great Price describes the origins of Black people.


RSJ explores possible reasons why JS was reluctant to record visionary experiences, or at least why he hesitated to record them.


JSPP editors on JS needing to use scribes.

Jan 15, 2021

The 1880 U.S. Census lists Rebecca Meads as white.

Feb 25, 2021

BYU Report on Race, Equity, and Belonging describes race problems on campus and makes recommendations to fix these.

Feb 27, 2021

Courtney Tanner announces the BYU report on campus racism in The Salt Lake Tribune.

May 1, 2021

Rachel Sterzer Gibson reports on birthplaces of General Authorities.

Jun 1, 2021

"An act concerning Servants and Slaves” (1705) lays out Virginia colony slave codes.


Webster's 1828 dictionary provides definitions for servitude.


Amy Tanner Thiriot notes the lack of slave registrations in Utah.


Webster's 1828 dictionary provides a definition for "servant."


Historian Amy Tanner Thiriot summarizes how Green Flake became enslaved to Brigham Young.


Merriam-Webster provides a definition of miscegenation.


Webster's 1828 dictionary defines slavery.


Webster's 1828 dictionary provides a definition of slave.


Amy Tanner Thiriot describes the tithings and consecration documents of Latter-day Saint slave owners.


Amy Tanner Thiriot describes the numbers of slaves in the Utah territory.


Amy Tanner Thiriot provides an extensive documentary and genealogical history of slavery in Utah.


Amy Thiriot's biography of Martha Morris.


Ronald V. Huggins summarize Jerald and Sandra Tanner's efforts to discredit the priesthood ban and the priesthood revelation.

Jan 19, 2022

Family Search records show that Rebecca Meads was endowed and sealed in 1863.

Jan 19, 2022

Family Search records show that Johanna Provis was endowed and sealed.

Jan 19, 2022

Nelson Ritchie endowed and sealed after his death.

Jan 19, 2022

Family Search records that Harriet Church was baptized in 1876; endowed and sealed in 1903.

Jan 19, 2022

1850 U.S. Census lists Harriet Church as an enslaved seven-year-old.

Jan 20, 2022

Family Search records that Sarah Hofheintz was endowed and sealed to spouse in 1845 and 1855.

Feb 7, 2022

General Young Men counselor Bradley R. Wilcox apologizes for an offensive comment on race.

Feb 8, 2022

BYU professor and Church leader Bradley R. Wilcox makes an offensive remark about the priesthood and temple restriction.

Feb 14, 2022

Bradley R. Wilcox apologizes a second time for "insensitive and hurtful" comments about race.

Apr 22, 2022

Members of Black Menaces group gain national attention for TikTok videos intended to hold BYU students and the university accountable for racism.

Apr 23, 2022

Slate reports on the Black Menaces, "TikTok's favorite new provacateurs."

Jun 23, 2022

William Knopp was sealed to his parents and his first wife, Jane Vale on April 29, 1845.

Aug 30, 2022

Sara Weissman reports efforts of Black Menaces to spread their movement at campuses across the country.

Sep 20, 2022

Library of Congress gives description of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago and the United States' territorial gains.

Oct 22, 2022

Palak Jayswal of The Salt Lake Tribune reports on walkout for BYU LGBTQ students organized in part by The Black Menaces.

Oct 27, 2022

Rodric Anthony Johnson mentions the 2018 Church "Be One Celebration" and mentions that the Church has not made an apology.


Seth Richardson describes Mesopotamian slavery.


Strong's Greek Concordance provides a definition for "δουλεύω".


Church History Topic essay provides overview of the Mormon-Missouri War of 1838.


Utah State Courts website explains probate.


Missouri Digital Archive provides explanation of the Missouri Mormon War.


Definition of οἰκέτης in Strong's Concordance.


Century of Black Mormons project provides biographical sketch of Martha Ann Morris.


Damian A. Pagras notes that slavery differs across time and cultures.


Joseph Smith prophesies that violence will begin in South Carolina related to the slave question.


Comparison of draft final versions of "An Act in Relation to Service."


Zev Farber describes slavery in the Old Testament.


Strong's Greek Concordance defines δοῦλος (including a list of references from the NT).


Church History Topic essay gives brief history of Indian slavery in Utah.


Church History Department provides biography of Green Flake.


Library of Congress website provides timeline of the American Civil War.


Historian Noel Lenski describes Roman slavery.


Church History Topic on slavery and abolition describes historical LDS attitudes towards slavery.


Historian W. Paul Reeve states that the priesthood restriction was not inspired and was a mistake.


Elder Ahmad S. Corbitt gives his perspective on the priesthood ban.


Four prominent Black church leaders describe their personal stories and understandings of events and teachings relating to the priesthood and temple ban that have brought them peace.


President Thomas S. Monson recounts the events of the 1978 revelation on the priesthood to Elder Edward Dube.

Feb 13, 2023

The Church Newsroom reports that there are 18 temples announced or built in Brazil.

May 8, 2023

FamilySearch publishes an index to their holdings of online African American online genealogy records.