Race in the Pearl of Great Price

316 Primary Sources

300 BC - 200 BC

Leon Levy Digital Library produces photograph of the 4Q2 Genesis fragment from the Dead Sea Scrolls manuscript.

300 BC - 100 BC

John C. Reeves translates 1Q Genesis Apocryphon.

200 BC

Alfred Ralphs offers Greek Septuagint version of Genesis 4:15 that mentions the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.

170 BC

James H. Charlesworth translates text regarding Cain as a "dark calf."

50 BC - 50 AD

Text of a Dead Sea Scroll thanksgiving hymn references "darkness" as expression of sadness.

50 BC - 50 AD

DSS text (1st century B.C.E.) relays Ham account, uses chet.

35 - 120 AD

Alexander Sperber reproduces Aramaic text of Targum Onkelos for Genesis 4:5.

60 - 60 AD

PA interprets Ham to mean "heat," with no claimed connection to Africa or color.

100 - 200 AD

Uncertain Syriac text indicating "black" or "sad."

100 - 400 AD

Targum Neofiti Genesis 4:5 reproduced by Alejandro Díez Macho.

200 - 1200

E. G. Clarke reproduces text of Genesis 4:5 of Targum Pseudo-Jonathan.

220 - 220 AD

Babylonian Talmud states that Ham's "skin turned black."

245 - 245 AD

O interprets Ex. 8:17 to refer to be a raven (some interpreted "blackness" to be significant--and connected to Ham).

370 - 370 AD

RHBA identifies H as "charcoal colored."

400 - 500 AD

Codex Vaticanus reference to Cain.

400 - 500 AD

Septuagint records Ham account, using chi (χ) rather than the Greek equivalent of chet [ח].

609 - 632 AD

Ali Ünal offers translation re: Cain.

700 - 1300

AAAL offers an account of Cain where identified as "black."

700 - 800 AD

Ka'b al-Ahbār explains Ham knowing his children by their black skin color.

900 - 900 AD

Pseudo-Jerome connects magi to sons of Noah.


LCE use chet for "Ham" (Gen. 9:22-24.)


Leningrad Codex editor scribes Masoretic text of Genesis 4:15 describing the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


LCE scribe writes C as "casting down" his face.

Dec 1100

Stephen A. Kaufman's edition of Targum Onkelos offers an Aramaic paraphrase of Genesis 4:15 that discusses Cain's "mark" or "sign."

1200 - 1300

Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon offer translation of Kabbalah text re: C's curse.

1200 - 1300

HS and MS offer translation re: Ham.


Stephen A. Kaufman offers a transcription of the Aramaic text of Targum Neofiti that includes a paraphrase of Genesis 4:15.


Sefaria publishes an online Hebrew text of Bereishit Rabbah 22:12.


King James Bible publishers offer English translation of Genesis 4:15 about the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


Thomas Peyton identifies Cain as "black."


Apocryphal account of Cain being killed by an arrow after being mistaken for an animal.


Elihu Coleman rejects that Cain and Canaan share a common lineage.

Oct 16, 1785

Paul Erdmann Iserts comments on alleged "Cain" origins for Africans.


Webster's 1828 Dictionary defines "black" as a "a negro; a person whose skin is black."


David Walker criticizes use of Cain mythology to justify enslavement.


Book of Mormon introduction refers to "black and white" people.


BOM text frequently used to describe "dark-skinned" people by some interpreters.

Jun 1830 - Mar 1831

In Moses 7, Enoch was commanded not to teach people of Canaan.

Jun 1830 - Mar 1831

The Book of Moses records that "the seed of Cain were black and had not place among them."

Dec 1830

Joseph wrote in his journal that the Lord revealed the contents of the Book of Moses.


David Walker criticizes use of Cain lore for black origins.

1831 - 1833

Joseph translates Moses including the phrase that Canaanites had "blackness" come upon them.

Feb 1831 - Mar 1831

Joseph adds that Canaan is cursed with a "vail of darkness" in his Bible translation.

Jul 1833

Phelps says "we have no special rule in the church, as to people of color."

Jul 16, 1833

Evening and Morning Star reports policy of not admitting Black people to the state or Church.

Jul 16, 1833

Richards clarifies previous article by saying that the Church has nothing to say about slavery and opposes free Black people entering the state on legal grounds.


David Child rejects the curse of Cain theory.


Wheatley discusses the outcome of her enslavement and describes Africans in Cain-like terms.

Feb 6, 1835

W. W. Phelps states that the mark and curse of Cain is black skin.

Mar 1835

W. W. Phelps believes black skin is an indicator of spiritual standing.

Aug 1835

JS & OC present statement prohibiting baptism of black people.

Dec 31, 1835

Unknown author composes hymn that celebrates future missionary work in Africa.

Apr 1836

Messenger and Advocate states that the son of Ham was cursed, resulting in bondage of Black enslaved people, and that the curse will be removed someday.

Apr 1, 1836

Joseph sees Black people as subject to the curse of Canaan.

Apr 1836

Angelina Grimke criticizes use of Canaan myth to justify enslavement.

Apr 1836

Messenger and Advocate calls for masters of slaves to be converted and kind as well as calling emancipation "destructive" and interracial marriage "devilish."

Apr 1836

Messenger and Advocate states that people can buy and free slaves provided they go to a different continent.

Apr 1836

M&A comments on "degrading nature" of Black people.


Adam Clarke refers to Noah giving Ham Africa.

Apr 1837

Theodore Weld criticizes use of Canaan lore to justify slavery.


Weld criticizes use of Cain myth for African origins.

Jul 1838

Woodruff describes working with Joseph Ball during the winter.

Aug 1838

Elders' Journal says there are Black people who "[wear] white skins."

Nov 17, 1838

A writer to the Colored American criticizes the Cain myth.

Dec 31, 1838

Edward Patridge relates how a team of Black people carried goods to the saints and were attacked.

Aug 17, 1840

John Patten charges Elijah Fordham with playing a violin at a Black gala.


James W. C. Pennington criticizes use of Bible lore to describe African origins.

May 5, 1841

William I. Appleby copies Abraham 1:26–27, describing priesthood restriction of Pharaoh, into his journal on May 5, 1841.

Jan 25, 1842

Willard Richards records in Joseph's journal that Joseph described Black people as "sons of Cain."

Feb 1842

Book of Abraham states Pharaoh was restricted from the priesthood because of lineage.

May 28, 1842

William Smith speculates that Boggs was shot "by one of his own negroes."

Jan 2, 1843

Orson Hyde stated that emancipation will empower Black people.

Jun 7, 1843

Nauvoo Neighbor states that Black people are industrious.

Jun 14, 1843

Nauvoo Neighbor reports that a Black man was involved in a crime and he was burned to death.

Jul 1, 1843

Campbell writes an account of Saints in Clay County.

Jul 19, 1843

Letter to editor of Nauvoo Neighbor condemns the lynching of Black people.


R. B. Lewis quotes Pompee Valentin-Vastey criticizing theorists who associate black people with Cain.

Mar 6, 1844

Hyrum tells Jane Manning James that the one who put the mark on her forehead can remove it.

Mar 10, 1844

William Clayton reports Alexander Badlam commenting on the "unfortunate race of beings the negroes."

Apr 6, 1844

John Taylor promises patriotic principles will protect Black people as well as "any other man."

Dec 31, 1844

Lucy commented on how "unlovely" the hut was that Salisbury had to give birth in.

Feb 1845

William Clayton includes a summary of the events leading the Martyrdom in the Council of Fifty minutes.

Apr 1, 1845

John Taylor states that the descendants of Ham have black skin, and are "apostate of the holy priesthood" and that the abolitionists are trying to make void the curse.

Apr 27, 1845

Orson Hyde uses premortal explanation to give an opinion on origins of Black people.

Apr 27, 1845

Hyde uses premortal explanation to give an opinion on origins of Black people.


Lucy mentions that there are Black people on their boat.

Jan 14, 1847

Revelation to Brigham Young describes reasons the Saints left Nauvoo for the West.

Mar 26, 1847

Brigham says he doesn't care about the blood or color of McCary.

Apr 25, 1847

Parley P. Pratt refers to Ham lineage as cursed with regards to the priesthood.

Apr 25, 1847

Pratt refers to Ham lineage as cursed with regards to the priesthood.

Jun 2, 1847

William Appleby says that ordination of Black members could lead to intermarriage.

Jun 16, 1847

Appleby writes he is ashamed to meet a white woman married to a Black man.

Dec 2, 1847

Brigham criticizes interracial marriage and mentions "if they were far away from the Gentiles they would all [h]av[e] to be killed."

Feb 13, 1849

Brigham says that Africans are cursed descendants of Cain.

Jun 1, 1851

Brigham states that the curse of Ham makes Black people servants and he forbids slavery.


John Fletcher writes that Ham's degraded condition resulted from marriage with the cursed race of Cain.


Josiah Priest rejects Cain theory in favor of Ham theory.


John Fletcher argues that Ham married a descendant of Cain.


Frederick Douglass pokes fun at the idea of the Biblical curse of Ham.


Wilford Woodruff's summary of a February 13, 1849 meeting in which Brigham Young states that black people are inelligible for the Priesthood because of the curse of Cain.


Wilford Woodruff records reference to the curse of Cain and how that impacts blessings.

Jan 16, 1852

Wilford Woodruff reports that Brigham offered an explanation for the ban.

Jan 16, 1852

Wilford Woodruff records Brigham explaining a restriction on priesthood and temple blessings for any man having "one drop of the seed of Cane in him."

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham states Black people can't "bear rule" while cursed.

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham expresses his belief in a Biblical curse on Black people.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham says that, as a prophet, he knows Black people are the children of Cain and "cannot bear rule in the priesthood."

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham denounces interracial marriage and gives an explanation for the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham affirms the right of citizenship for Black people but denies the right of governance.

Feb 5, 1852

LaJean Carruth transcribes of Brigham's speech instituting the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham expresses belief in the curse of Cain.

Apr 3, 1852

Deseret News uses Cain rationale for ban.

Aug 29, 1852

Orson Pratt holds Africans and other groups have a "degraded parentage" and valiant premortal spirits "kept in reserve" will not receive their bodies.

Apr 1853

Orson Pratt offers premortal explanation of race and ban.


George A. Smith expresses priesthood ban rationale.

Oct 9, 1859

Brigham says that Black people cannot hold priesthood office because of the curse of Cain.


Pro-slavery advocate Nathan Lord argues that the curse of Cain was perpetuated through intermarriage with Ham's line.

Oct 8, 1860

Brigham says "we are all the children of one Father, whether we be … black or white."

Dec 31, 1860

Brigham tells Horace Greeley that slavery is "of divine institution" and will persist until the curse of Ham is removed.

Sep 25, 1861

Brigham Young says he would confer any blessing possible on Isaac Manning.


J. W. Etheridge offers an English translation of the Targum Onkelos that paraphrases Genesis 4:15 about the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.

Oct 6, 1863

Brigham states that curse of Ham still exists on Black people.


Paul de Lagarde offers reprint of MS Leiden regarding Ephrem's view of Ham's blackness.

Sep 25, 1869

RWH criticizes Church for preventing blacks from civil or religious leadership.

Dec 25, 1869

Brigham teaches Lorenzo Young that nobody was neutral in the war of heaven and teaches the curse of Cain.

Apr 9, 1871

Brigham teaches that Cain was cursed with black skin.

Jan 12, 1873

George Q. Cannon references the curse of Cain.


Brown rejects Cain origin for peoples of African ancestry.

Jul 4, 1874

Brigham refers to the priesthood and temple restrictions.

May 6, 1879

Smith reports on Able's ordination.

May 31, 1879

L. John Nuttall records John Taylor citing "some parties" who criticized notion of ban.

May 31, 1879

Zebedee Coltrin and Abraham Smoot defend priesthood ban.

Jun 4, 1879

First Presidency meeting minutes record John Taylor's conclusion that Elijah Able was ordained before the "word of the Lord was fully understood."

Oct 10, 1880

John Taylor comments on importance of submitting decisions to body of Church.


FS recites conventional thought re: premortal justification of restriction.


EBS justifies priesthood ban in poem using premortal unworthiness explanation.

Nov 20, 1881

George Q. Cannon articulates the priesthood restriction.


Taylor attributes priesthood restriction to Cain's descendance through Ham's wife.

Oct 25, 1883

H. M. Turner alludes to restriction on Elijah Able.

Dec 13, 1884

George Q. Cannon expresses vision of kingdom of God, assuming blacks will not be members.

Dec 27, 1884

Jane Manning James indicates that her race was through Ham.

Feb 4, 1885

JSR comments on hesitance for black baptism and black membership prohibition.

Jun 3, 1885

Deseret News commenter theorizes on descendants of Cain.

Apr 1888

Henry Carroll recalls "Black" Pete's activities in Kirtland.

Jul 31, 1888

Charles Lavigerie mentions extensive ivory holdings in East Africa.

Oct 1, 1890

Heber J. Grant records that Lorenzo Snow was glad that revelation could bring a change to the priesthood ban.

Oct 1, 1890

Abraham H. Cannon recalls that Brigham told Lorenzo Snow that blacks couldn't hold priesthood through premortal actions.

Mar 25, 1893

George Q. Cannon notes the Anglo-Saxon nature of Utah.

Apr 14, 1894

George Q. Cannon articulates premortal designation for lineage.

Jul 15, 1894

Juvenile Instructor rejects knowledge of neutrality in premortality.

Oct 16, 1894

Woodruff attributes priesthood restriction to Cain's murder of Abel.

Aug 22, 1895

George Q. Cannon supports upholding restriction in mixed-race scenarios to avoid "complications."

Aug 22, 1895

Cannon states that Joseph taught that the seed of Cain could not receive the priesthood.

Dec 19, 1895

Le Roy Snow offers premortal explanation for certain classes.

Oct 5, 1896

Richards says that Joseph taught that the "seed of Cain" would not receive their "final redemption" until after the "seed of Abel . . . should all have their opportunity."

Dec 16, 1897

Cannon states that he was told by John Taylor in Nauvoo about Joseph Smith's priesthood ban teachings.

May 9, 1899

Missionaries tell Broad Ax of kind treatment by Black Americans in South.

Dec 30, 1899

Deseret Evening News debates on what ordinances black people can receive based on Brigham's language.


Thomas W. Young relays premortal explanation that Church leaders use to justify restriction.

Mar 1, 1900

Cannon cites what John Taylor told him in Nauvoo about his conversation with Joseph about the priesthood ban.

Aug 18, 1900

GQC cites reports from BY and JS justifying priesthood ban.

Oct 6, 1900

Grant tells a morality story using a minstrel show and n-word.

Nov 1, 1903

Salt Lake Tribune cites report of patriarch claiming that Black people have no place in heaven.

Nov 28, 1903

DN repudiates SLT report on EB's funeral.

Dec 17, 1903

Deseret News explains black people's place in heaven.

Apr 9, 1905

JFS uses story of GW to show black people should not outdo white people in courtesy.

Apr 7, 1906

J. Golden Kimball says same persecutors of LDS are also lynchers.

Jan 31, 1907

JFS rejects premortal explanation, affirms Cain explanation.

Aug 26, 1908

Joseph F. Smith states that all ordinations of Black people must be rendered null and void.


1909 edition of Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible proposes that "Ham" is derived from Egyptian kem "black."

Oct 4, 1909

David O. McKay uses "negro" to describe those who reject importance of labor.

Dec 1, 1909

John Whitaker cites "one drop" rule in justifying restricting Nelson Ritchie from receiving sealing.

Aug 31, 1910

Richard Barry comments on LDS views on black people in 20th-century.


Samuel Lee offers a transcription of the Syriac Peshitta Pentateuch, including a translation of Genesis 4:15, describing the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


A Christian Peshitta text provides a Syriac translation of Genesis 4:15.

Apr 4, 1915

MJB argues for race as a product of premortal designation.

Apr 7, 1916

Rey Pratt hopes for eradication of "racial feelings."

Oct 8, 1916

Walter P. Monson uses "descendants of Cain" to chide those who fail to warn their neighbor.

Oct 4, 1918

HJG uses story to mock black people, uses n-word.


Nigeria governor Sir Frederick Lugard observes presence of natural resources throughout Africa.

Jan 25, 1922

JET invokes Cain to explain priesthood ban origins.

Oct 6, 1922

Charles Penrose suggests that capacity to recognize truth is rooted in race.

Apr 4, 1925

Charles Nibley celebrates emancipation of slavery and overthrow of part of Constitution.

May 3, 1926

Pageant depicts Mormons in same light as "negroes."


Joseph Fielding Smith attributes priesthood ban to Joseph Smith's teachings.

Apr 7, 1939

George F. Richards attributes blackness to premortal unworthiness.

Jan 25, 1940

J. Reuben Clark proposes that the Twelve review past statements and make a ruling on whether "one drop" of blood disqualifies someone from receiving the priesthood.

Sep 1941

JCM writes to JJM advising segregation of blood in blood banks.

Jun 23, 1942

FP tells ETB to make accommodations for white Church members' discomfort with Blacks.

Jun 30, 1944

John A. Widstoe cites premortal unworthiness that black skin could be a mark.


Joseph Fielding Smith explains the application of Moses 7 in missionary work among the "Canaanites."

Jun 1945

Albright notes that origins of Ham's name are unknown.

Aug 31, 1945

JAW rejects notions of "master race."

Apr 6, 1946

Harold B. Lee celebrates teaching against racism at time of WWII.

Apr 6, 1946

CEY uses allegations of miscegenation advocacy as example of "motive questioning."

May 5, 1947

First Presidency tells Spongberg that the Church makes no effort to proselytize black people.

Jun 26, 1947

Lowry Nelson replies to Heber Meeks and references past instances of racism, didn't realize was a policy.

Jun 26, 1947

Lowry Nelson references the premortal life as one of the reasons for the priesthood ban.

Jul 17, 1947

The First Presidency explains rationale for priesthood ban in a letter to Lowry Nelson.

Jul 23, 1947

Heber Meeks mentions priesthood ban/adjacent teachings as potential reasons to stay out of Cuba.

Sep 30, 1947

Negro Digest criticizes Church for priesthood ban.

Oct 4, 1947

GFR uses black people as cautionary tale on valiance.

Oct 8, 1947

LN criticizes traditions of ban.

Nov 3, 1947

David O. McKay explains that denying the priesthood to Black Saints is part of the eternal plan of God, based on the book of Abraham and related to factors in premortal life.

Nov 12, 1947

The First Presidency warns Lowry Nelson to "re-orient your thinking."

Apr 12, 1948

J. Reuben Clark advocates segregation in blood banks "to protect the purity of the blood streams of the people of this Church."

Aug 12, 1948

HJ and RB reject notions that "white blood" differs from "black blood."


1949 First Presidency provides a statement on the priesthood and temple restriction for Black Saints to an anonymous correspondent.

Aug 17, 1949

LEB produces typescript of 1949 FP statement.

Oct 9, 1949

NA highlights presence of natural resources in Nigeria.

Apr 6, 1950

David O. McKay notes that individual freedom is undermined through racial animus.

Nov 20, 1950

Chicago Daily Tribune announces that the American National Red Cross will not segregate blood.


Abraham Levene translates a commentary on Genesis 4:15 from early Syrian Christians mentioning the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.

Jul 31, 1951

DrWB dismisses racial identification with blood.

Aug 17, 1951

William E. Berrett provides expanded version of 1949 First Presidency statement dated August 17, 1951.

Apr 4, 1952

Eldred G. Smith notes that descendants of Cain are not eligible to receive priesthood.

Mar 3, 1953

In correspondence with O. Boyd Mathias, Rowena J. Miller, on behalf of J. Reuben Clark, counselor in the First Presidency, states that blood is separated by race at LDS hospital but that Clark gives never gives guidance on blood transfusions.

Apr 1953

WRB notes that LDS Hospital segregates black and white blood banks.

Jan 19, 1954

David O. McKay notes experience dealing with the priesthood ban.

Mar 10, 1954

David O. McKay alludes to lifting the "black til proven white" restriction in South Africa.

May 17, 1954

WB inquires about ban study committee.

Aug 27, 1954

Mark E. Petersen justifies segregation based on beliefs about consequences of interracial marriage.

Aug 27, 1954

Elder Mark E. Peterson condemns the civil rights movement and defends Latter-day Saint theology and practices related to priesthood and temple restrictions for Black Saints.

Apr 6, 1955

Clifford E. Young celebrates lack of racial animosity in congregation in Hawaii.


Bruce R. McConkie defends priesthood ban based on scriptural interpretation.


Bruce R. McConkie publishes several articles containing common Latter-day Saint views about Black people in his 1958 volume, Mormon Doctrine.


Joseph F. Smith tells Eugene England that no revelation exists on premortal explanation for ban.


Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible (1963 ed.) states that Ham's name is not derived from the Egyptian words for "Egypt" or "Nubia."

Oct 5, 1963

Hugh B. Brown says "load him with bitter racial prejudice and you have a Disraeli."

May 18, 1965

LA suggests Church isn't racist for its support to other ethnic minorities.

Aug 17, 1965

AD holds that Christ supersedes all racial "cursing."

Sep 1966

Armand L. Mauss compares Latter-day Saints with Catholics and Protestants and finds that they are slightly more racist than some, and slightly less racist than others.

Nov 22, 1966

Jim Todd offers analysis of ramifications of priesthood ban being lifted.

Sep 29, 1967

Ezra T. Benson says God only knows why no priesthood for "seed of Cain."

Oct 9, 1967

Bruce R. McConkie teaches that Black people are "lacking spirituality" and that the "doctrine of pre-existence" explains the existence of Black people.

Dec 15, 1969

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency saying that the origins of ban are not known.


Stephen G. Taggart argues that Joseph Smith originated the priesthood/temple ban in response to conditions in the South and later developed a theological justification in the Book of Abraham.

Jan 10, 1970

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency saying that the origins of ban are not known.

Jan 21, 1970

SCOTUS rules that schools that segregate aren't tax-exempt.

Jun 21, 1970

NYT reports on conservative/liberal discussion on priesthood restriction.

Dec 31, 1970

The Church uses Cain justification in black ordinations in Brazil.

May 12, 1972

Wallace Turner cites statistics regarding percentage of Mormons/non-Mormons who think blacks want to destroy Church.


Hugh W. Nibley concludes that the Priesthood restriction has its origin with God.

Jan 1973

Lester Bush offers source on how John Taylor felt Joseph was wrong on Elijah Able's ordination.

Apr 1973

LEB writes seminal article offering critical origin analysis of priesthood/temple restriction.

Jun 1977

BRM tells SWK that there is no scriptural barrier to lifting the ban.


LeGrand Richards discusses the role of Brazil in Official Declaration 2.

Apr 1978

Newell Bringhurst argues that the origins of the priesthood ban are unclear.


Ronald K. Esplin states his view that Brigham's views on priesthood ban were rooted in revelation.


Esplin concludes that Brigham's believed the priesthood ban was rooted in revelation.


William Wilson and Richard Paulsen offer history of Mormon use of Cain account.

Apr 6, 1980

Bruce R. McConkie celebrates "seed of Cain" receiving the priesthood.


Blau highlights use of two kinds of letters for _chet_.


Lipscomb offers and English translation of ancient Armenian Christian Adam traditions in his Ph.D. Dissertation that comments on Genesis 4:15 mention of the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


Ephraim Isaac's translation of the "Animal Apocalypse" offers color-driven animal depiction of Noah account.


Lipscomb provides a transcription of ancient Armenian Christian traditions relating to Genesis 4:15 and the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


Görög-Karady highlights how Vili see selves as prototypical humans and white people as cursed.


Jacob Neusner provides an English translation of Genesis Rabbah 22:12 on Genesis 4:15, which mentions the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.

May 18, 1989

MDH comments on racial attitudes during mission to Cincinnati (esp. re: L/MH).


Michael Maher offers an English translation of Targum Pseudo-Jonathan that includes a paraphrase of Genesis 4:15 discussing the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


Editors of Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer publish a French translation of an ancient Jewish commentary relating to Genesis 4:15 and the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


Martin McNamara offers an English translation of Targum Neofiti that paraphrases Genesis 4:15.

Jan 1994

Gordon Hyden and Donald Williams note relative stability of Tanzania post-independence, in spite of generalized post-colonial instability.


Rabbi Y. Herczeg translates Rashi commentary into English, with its interpretation of Cain's "mark" or "sign" as mentioned in Genesis 4:15.


David O. McKay describing the priesthood and temple ban as a practice rather than a doctrine, as reported by Sterling M. McMurrin.


Sterling M. McMurrin reports that he arranged meetings with the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and drafted a First Presidency statement on civil rights read at the October 1963 General Conference.


Johannes Glenthøj gives an analysis of possible Cain deaths.


Leonard J. Arrington reports that an apostolic committee found no scriptural support for restriction.


Edwin B. Firmage claims Hugh B. Brown proposed to lift the priesthood restriction but Harold B. Lee pressured him to sign a statement saying it was "doctrinally based."


Scholar James L. Kugel describes various ancient ideas about the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


James L. Kugel summarizes ancient Jewish traditions surmising that Cain was mistakenly killed by his descendant, Lamech.

May 19, 1998

The Church states that the LA Times story about an earlier plan to retract "doctrines concerning blacks" is incorrect.

Oct 19, 1999

In 1999, Richard Jackson recalls McKay saying Lord told him not to inquire about ban further.


History of the Cain-as-cursed-wanderer motif.


Nibley links the "blackness" of Cain with the soot and gime of metalworking.


Nibley suggests that the priesthood restriction is related to matriarchal succession rather than race.


Gay Robins gives an overview of color symbolism in ancient Egypt and the colorization of foreigners.


Bible scholars Dogniez and Harl offer a translation into French of the Greek Septuagint text of Genesis 4:15 that speaks of the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.


Haynes describes widespread explanation for black skin and slavery in the 1830's based on Noah's curse of Canaan.


Stephen Haynes argues that associating Biblical curse language with Black people was common in the mid-nineteenth-century.


Historian D. Michael Quinn reports J. Reuben Clark's recommendation that branches for Black Saints be created and that men be organized into preparatory Aaronic priesthood groups.


SRH explains how H account played to "honor culture."


Joseph highlights Lemuel Hayne's criticism of Canaan myth.


Goldenberg reviews the interpretation of the color symbolism of the Animal Apocalypse.


Goldenberg explains how Cain became associated with black skin.


David Goldenberg explains that the persistence that Ham was black originated from saying his name meant black.


David Goldenberg explains how Ham was misread.


Daniel C. Matt offers an English translation of the Zohar that interprets the "mark" or "sign" of Cain mentioned in Genesis 4:15.


Richard D. Draper, S. Kent Brown, and Michael D. Rhodes identify "seed of Cain" with "skin pigmentation."


Draper, Brown, and Rhodes describe Ham/Canaan as "Black."


Latter-day Saint scholars Richard D. Draper et al. observe that Cain's "mark is not the same as the curse, which carried multiple penalties."


Stephen A. Kaufman offers a transcription of Targum Pseudo-Jonathan for Genesis 4:15 that discusses Cain's "mark" or "sign."


Caroline Elkins offers brief treatment of war violence during Kikuyu uprising.


Marvin Meyer provides an English translation of an early Christian text that describes Cain as "the sun."


Matthew Bowman writes on Bigfoot/Cain connection.


Richard Newman's biography highlights RA's experience with integrated Methodist revivals.


J. Reuben Clark told that transfused blood disintegrates rapidly.


J. Reuben Clark told by doctors that LDS Hospital segregated blood and that blood changes after a certain amount of time.


J. Reuben Clarks records the Quorum of the Twelve disagreeing on the "one drop" of blood rule for priesthood exclusion.

Jun 2010

Thomas Guglielmo reports that the American Red Cross continued racial segregation of blood until 1950.

Jun 2010

Thomas Guglielmo reports that in 1941 the Red Cross officially implemented refused blood from Black donors.


Eric Foner explains antebellum American racism.


Genesis 10:15–20 (KJV) outlines the lineage of Ham and Canaan.


Modern 2013 edition of Abraham 1:21–27 in the Pearl of Great Price.


Moses 7:8, 22 in the current 2013 edition of the Book of Moses.

Feb 21, 2013

Armand Mauss discusses efforts to campaign church leadership to repudiate ban.

Dec 1, 2013

In the Gospel Topics Essay, the Church denounces past theories and racism.


Reeve discusses historical reasons for the priesthood ban.

Jul 2015

Ryan Stuart Bingham argues in JMH that the "blackness" of Cain and Canaanites in Moses and Abraham referred to race and skin color.

Jul 2015

Ryan Stuart Bingham argues that Joseph's racial views influence his interpretations in Facsimile 3 of the Book of Abraham.


Glenn David Bauscher offers an English translation of the Syriac Peshitta translation of Genesis 4:15, which mentions the "mark" or "sign" of Cain.

Aug 5, 2019

Church historian Snow comments on writing of race/priesthood essay.


Stephen Smoot addresses Dan Vogel's argument about race in the Pearl of Great Price.


Dan Vogel argues that the Pearl of Great Price describes the origins of Black people.


World Population Review report that less than 1% of Zimbabweans are white.

May 18, 2021

Moss summarizes Rwandan weather.

Dec 22, 2022

Samuel Berman offers an English translation of Midrash Tanchuma Bereshit 10, commenting on Genesis 4:15's mention of Cain's "mark" or "sign."

Dec 22, 2022

Samuel A. Berman provides a Hebrew transcription of the Midrash Tanchuma discussion of Genesis 4:15, which mentions Cain's "mark" or "sign."