Black Saints and the Priesthood (1895–1978)

812 Primary Sources

60 - 70 AD

Peter receives revelation saying to reveal gospel to Gentiles.


Virginian law states that slave status is inherited from the mother.


Louisiana Legislature places ownership of children born to slaves with the enslaved mother's owner.

Sep 15, 1829

Mexico abolishes slavery.


Joseph translates BOM, "God denieth none, bond & free, black & white."

Jul 1830

Joseph reveals Church to be governed "by common consent."

Feb 1831 - Mar 1831

Joseph adds that Canaan is cursed with a "vail of darkness" in his Bible translation.


The 1832 Mississippi Constitution contains slave codes.

Jul 1833

Phelps says "we have no special rule in the church, as to people of color."

Jul 16, 1833

Evening and Morning Star reports policy of not admitting Black people to the state or Church.

Jul 29, 1833

John Whitmer describes violence against Mormons in Missouri.

Dec 1833

Phelps describes the violence faced by Mormons in Missouri.

Dec 1833

W. W. Phelps records a letter from a group of Missourians to Latter-day Saints.


Wilford Woodruff lists Lydia Walker as a member of the Eagle Creek Branch.


1835 First Presidency explains why they included a section on government in the Doctrine and Covenants.


1835 First Presidency explains significance of content in Doctrine & Covenants.

Mar 31, 1836

Joseph signs ministerial certificate for Able attesting to status as elder.

Apr 1, 1836

Joseph identifies Black people as sons of Canaan.

Apr 1836

Joseph talks about potential effects of emancipation.

Apr 9, 1836

Joseph Smith discusses slavery in a letter to Oliver Cowdery.

May 25, 1838

Wilford Woodruff calls Joseph Ball an "Elder."

May 25, 1838

Wilford Woodruff describes Joseph Ball as "Elder."

Jul 1838

Woodruff describes Joseph Ball as "Elder."

Aug 31, 1838

Joseph and Rigdon uses the term "negro" in a derogatory way.

Oct 27, 1838

Lilburn Boggs directs John B. Clark to carry out the extermination order.

Nov 12, 1838

Unknown witness notes Joseph does not laugh at a joke about Black people.

Dec 12, 1839

Wilford Woodruff refers to Ball as "elder."


LaFayette C. Lee recalls Joseph saying that his words were, at times, cited as if scripture.

Oct 1840

First Presidency, while announcing Nauvoo Temple, says that "persons of . . . every colour" will worship in the sanctuary of the temple.

May 5, 1841

William I. Appleby copies Abraham 1:26–27, describing priesthood restriction of Pharaoh, into his journal on May 5, 1841.

Jan 25, 1842

Willard Richards records in Joseph's journal that Joseph described Black people as "sons of Cain."

Nov 5, 1842

Joseph has a conversation with a group of indigenous people with a Black interpreter.

Jan 2, 1843

Joseph commends Black people who cultivate themselves.

Jun 25, 1843

Elijah Able holds calling as a seventy in Cincinnati.

Jul 14, 1843

Joseph makes a joke about Black people.

Aug 27, 1843

Joseph teaches that priestood comes from Gods, not from your parents.

Dec 1843

Joseph describes himself as "a friend of equal rights to all men."

Jan 2, 1844

Joseph refers to Black people as "rebellious n---ers."

Jan 26, 1844 - Feb 7, 1844

Joseph Smith lists his views on emancipation in his campaign pamphlet.

Apr 6, 1844 - Apr 9, 1844

Joseph says the system Christ opened up is for all nations and colors.

May 12, 1844

Joseph teaches that the temple is a place for "all nations . . . to receive their endowments."

Jun 1, 1844

Ball serves as chair of Joseph's Boston election committee.

Oct 9, 1844

Woodruff writes to Brigham about William Smith's mismanagement of the branch.

1845 - 1854

List of enslaved individuals in Brigham's papers.

Apr 1, 1845

John Taylor states that the descendants of Ham have black skin, and are "apostate of the holy priesthood" and that the abolitionists are trying to make void the curse.

Jun 1, 1845

George Hales records evidence that Able still held the priesthood in 1845.

Oct 22, 1845

Thomas C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, gives notice that he plans to publish a proclamation by William Smith.

Oct 29, 1845

Apostle and Patriarch William Smith gives his reasons for opposing the leadership of Brigham Young and the rest of the Twelve.

Nov 1, 1845

Willard Richards notifies the Church in Times and Seasons of the excommunication of William Smith on Oct 12, 1845 for having "turned away from the truth".

Nov 1, 1845

Parley P. Pratt abstained from sustaining William Smith as an apostle and patriarch.

Dec 24, 1845

Heber C. Kimball's journal records Hofheintz couple as receiving their endowment in Nauvoo.


John Whittier sees Enoch Lewis preaching.

May 1, 1846

James Allen Scott describes details of the large assembly room for dedication services on the first floor of the Nauvoo Temple.

May 11, 1846

James K. Polk explains why he wishes to declare war on Mexico.

May 13, 1846

The United States declares war against Mexico.

Sep 24, 1846

CHE-MO KO-MON describes large sanctuary for public meetings on the first floor of the Nauvoo Temple.


Congressional act creating Utah Territory.


Florida laws circumscribed ownership of certain property by slaves.

1847 - 1853

Wilford Woodruff records entering the Salt Lake Valley.


Pioneer emigration records list Green Flake.


Entry for Oscar (Smith) Crosby in pioneer company records describes him as "colored."


Florida law describing punishment for unlawful assemblies.


Congressional act abolishing slavery in U.S. territories.

Jan 14, 1847

Revelation to Brigham Young describes reasons the Saints left Nauvoo for the West.

Mar 26, 1847

Brigham says he doesn't care about the blood or color of McCary.

Apr 16, 1847

Heber C. Kimball notes Hark Lay, Oscar Crosby, and Green Flake in his pioneer company.

Apr 25, 1847

Parley P. Pratt refers to Ham lineage as cursed with regards to the priesthood.

Jun 2, 1847

Appleby sees Lewis, an elder ordained by William Smith.

Dec 2, 1847

Brigham criticizes interracial marriage and mentions "if they were far away from the Gentiles they would all [h]av[e] to be killed."


List of John Bankhead's family in a wagon company roster includes 11 "servants" (slaves).


List of Francis McKown's family in a wagon company roster includes 2 slaves.


South Carolina forbids teaching slaves to read.


South Carolina laws regulate the assembling of both enslaved and free African Americans.


Pioneer company records include Hark Lay (Wales).

Feb 2, 1848

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican-American War.

Feb 26, 1848

An 1848 Alabama law requires masters to provide adequate food and clothing for slaves.

Mar 6, 1848

Alabama act prohibits slaves from traveling independently of their masters.

Jun 1848

List of members of John Brown's pioneer company of 10.


Virginia law forbids interracial marriages.

1849 - 1881

Charles C. Rich's papers include bond relating to a man named Richard.

Feb 13, 1849

Brigham says that Africans are cursed descendants of Cain.

Jul 19, 1849

Brigham says that Utahans are averse to slavery.

Nov 27, 1849

Wilford Woodruff writes a letter to Thomas L. Kane about slavery.


The United States Slave Schedule lists Agnes Flake's slaves in Utah.


List of slaves in Tooele in the Official 1850 census, lists "none."


Official Davis County 1850 Census Schedule 2 lists the number of slaves as "none."


Official 1850 census schedule 2 lists the number of slaves in Salt Lake County.


John Burton is listed as a member of Joseph Robinson's household in the 1850 census.


The official 1850 US Census includes an entry for Green Flake.


The 1850 census (official) lists of slaves in Iron County.


San Pete County's official 1850 census shows no slaves living in the county (original and copy).


The draft 1850 census lists slaves in Salt Lake County and Davis County.


List of slaves in the draft 1850 census for Utah Green River Precinct, shows "none."


The 1850 US Census lists slaves listed in Utah County (draft and official).


List of slaves in Weber county in the 1850 census, shows "none" (original and copy).

Jan 9, 1850

Henry Clay's introduces the resolution which began the Compromise of 1850.

Feb 6, 1850

Orson Hyde explains why William Smith was excommunicated.

Jul 3, 1850

John M. Bernhisel reports to Brigham on events in Washington, D.C.

Dec 15, 1850

Orson Hyde explains Utah servitude laws.


William Crosby summarizes the Green Flake episode.


Brigham Young advises the residents of Iron County to buy and raise Indian children.

Mar 12, 1851

Brigham Young tells William Crosby that he does not support slave trading in Utah and comments on Green Flake.

Jun 1, 1851

Brigham states that the curse of Ham makes Black people servants and he forbids slavery.

Jun 1, 1851

Wilford Woodruff records Brigham condemning slavery but maintaining that Black people must be servants.


Wilford Woodruff records reference to the curse of Cain and how that impacts blessings.


Wilford Woodruff's summary of a February 13, 1849 meeting in which Brigham Young states that black people are inelligible for the Priesthood because of the curse of Cain.


Brigham Young addresses Native American slavery in an address to the Utah Territorial Legislature.

Jan 1, 1852

Utah Territorial Legislature legalizes slavery in the territory.

Jan 5, 1852

Brigham explains slave law in Utah.

Jan 5, 1852

Brigham expresses his views on slavery in the margins of the document.

Jan 11, 1852

Brigham Young explains how Sally Kahpeputz Young came into his household.

Jan 16, 1852

Wilford Woodruff reports that Brigham offered an explanation for the ban.

Jan 16, 1852

Wilford Woodruff records Brigham explaining a restriction on priesthood and temple blessings for any man having "one drop of the seed of Cane in him."

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham expresses his belief in a Biblical curse on Black people.

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham expresses opposition to slave abuse and support for Black service.

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham gives reasons for Black "service" laws.

Jan 23, 1852

Brigham explains why he disapproves of American slavery but says life is better for them than others in Europe.

Jan 27, 1852

Transcription of Orson Pratt's antislavery speech.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham expresses belief in the curse of Cain.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham denounces interracial marriage and gives an explanation for the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham affirms the right of citizenship for Black people but denies the right of governance.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham says that, as a prophet, he knows Black people are the children of Cain and "cannot bear rule in the priesthood."

Feb 5, 1852

LaJean Carruth transcribes of Brigham's speech instituting the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham says the time will come when Black people will have the restriction lifted.

Feb 5, 1852

Brigham speaks on the need to treat "the seed of Cain" well as servants.

Jun 13, 1852

Spanish Fork Ward records include rebaptism records for Marinda Redd and Amy.

Dec 25, 1852

Brigham defends servitude in Utah and advocates for a type of segregation to create unity.

Jul 21, 1854

Amasa Lyman, writing for Agnes Flake, asks for Green Flake to be returned.

Aug 19, 1854

Brigham comments on Green Flake's health.

Nov 4, 1854

Record of Amy's death.

May 10, 1855

In his diary, Charles C. Rich says he has a "negro."

Nov 2, 1855

David Lewis' probate record lists 2 Native American boys and 3 people of color.


Entry in Brigham's journal for Williams Camp's case.

Mar 23, 1856

Brigham considers "children of Ham" to be destined for "perpetual slavery."

Mar 23, 1856

Brigham says to "keep blacks out."

Jul 10, 1856

Probate registration for Shepherd by Williams Camp.

Jul 10, 1856

Probate registration of Daniel Camp by Williams Camp.

Jul 10, 1856

Probate registration for Shepherd by Diannah Camp.

Jul 10, 1856

Bill of sale documents transfer of a slave from Abraham O. Smoot to Thomas S. Williams.

Jul 10, 1856

William Taylor Dennis affidavit for Williams Camp's ownership of Shepherd.

Jul 10, 1856

Probate registry for Jerry, Caroline, and Tampian by Duritha Lewis.


Mississippi's 1857 codes on slave criminal offenses.

Jan 8, 1857

John Brown lists a servant as one of his assets.

Jan 8, 1857

In a consecration deed, William Taylor Dennis lists an "African Servant."

Apr 12, 1857

Lehi Ward records include baptismal record for Nancy Lines Dennis.

Apr 12, 1857

Entry for Betty Brown's rebaptism in the Lehi Ward's records indicates that she is "colored".

Aug 9, 1857

Brigham includes "n---er stealing" among the "treasonous" actions of which other Americans could be accused.


Thomas Cobb says that there are not laws against raping an enslaved woman in the United States.


John Taylor disparages abolitionists and underground railroad.


John Taylor disparages abolitionism and "n---er stealing."

Jan 24, 1858

Ezra T. Benson holds that the Saints will not involve themselves in freeing Black people from enslavement.


Nelson Winch Green reports Smith's recollections of the existence of enslavement of indigenous peoples in Utah.


In a history of Indiana, John B. Dillon lists Indiana Territory slave laws.

Aug 10, 1859

Deseret News provides summary of court case A. B. Miller v. Thomas S. Williams over the ownership of two slaves.

Aug 24, 1859

Deseret News provides summary of Miller v. Williams as of August, 24, 1859.

Oct 9, 1859

Brigham says that Black people cannot hold priesthood office because of the curse of Cain.


Martha Ann Morris is listed in Green Flake's household in the 1860 census.


The 1860 Census includes entry for Marinda Redd.

Jan 3, 1860

Brigham offers to buy enslaved Black man in order to free him.

Jun 1, 1860

1860 US census schedule 2 for Salt Lake County includes enslaved individuals.

Jun 13, 1860

US 1860 census schedule 2 for Davis County includes enslaved individuals.

Aug 14, 1860

The 1860 census includes Green Flake's family.

Aug 30, 1860

US 1860 Census includes entry for Nancy Lines Dennis.

Oct 8, 1860

Brigham says "we are all the children of one Father, whether we be … black or white."

Dec 24, 1860

South Carolina declares secession.

Dec 26, 1860

Brigham criticizes the effect of slavery on soil.

Dec 31, 1860

Brigham tells Horace Greeley that slavery is "of divine institution" and will persist until the curse of Ham is removed.


The Parowan Ward's tithing records include John Burton.

Jul 28, 1861

Brigham rejects abolitionists in the North and the Southern slaveholders alike.

Sep 25, 1861

Brigham Young says he would confer any blessing possible on Isaac Manning.

Feb 19, 1862

Brigham rejects both abolitionists and "negro-drivers."

Jan 1, 1863

Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation.

Mar 8, 1863

Brigham says "whites will be cursed" for their "abuse" of Black people "unless they repent."

Oct 6, 1863

Brigham states that curse of Ham still exists on Black people.

Jan 18, 1865

John Taylor leaves the question of liberation of Black people due to a "higher law" to other parties.

Feb 1, 1865

Thirteenth amendment to the US Constitution abolishes slavery.

Aug 10, 1865

Terms of surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia.

Oct 8, 1865

George A. Smith notes that some wrongly think the Civil War was caused by "the almighty negro."

Jan 19, 1866

1852 Utah territorial act concerning Native American slavery.

Aug 20, 1866

Andrew Johnson's proclamation of the end of hostilities with the South.


Paul de Lagarde offers reprint of MS Leiden regarding Ephrem's view of Ham's blackness.


Catherine Waite cites Brigham's quote against abolitionism.

Dec 25, 1869

Brigham teaches Lorenzo Young that nobody was neutral in the war of heaven and teaches the curse of Cain.

Apr 9, 1871

Brigham teaches that Cain was cursed with black skin.

Jul 4, 1874

Brigham refers to the priesthood and temple restrictions.

Sep 3, 1875

Eight Black Saints perform baptisms for the dead in the Salt Lake Temple in 1875.

1878 - 1900

Joseph commanded by angel to use water not wine for sacrament.

May 6, 1879

Joseph F. Smith reports that Elijah Able Able received washings and anointing in Kirtland.

May 31, 1879

Zebedee Coltrin recalls that Joseph Smith said to him that "the Negro has no right nor cannot hold the Priesthood."

May 31, 1879

Abraham Smoot recalls that Joseph told him that Black members should not be ordained to the priesthood.

Jun 4, 1879

First Presidency meeting minutes record John Taylor's conclusion that Elijah Able was ordained before the "word of the Lord was fully understood."

Jun 4, 1879

John Taylor states that he thought Abel's ordination was a mistake.

Oct 10, 1880

John Taylor comments on importance of submitting decisions to body of Church.

Nov 15, 1880

George Q. Cannon discusses canonization process.


EBS justifies priesthood ban in poem using premortal unworthiness explanation.


FS recites conventional thought re: premortal justification of restriction.

Feb 1, 1881

George Q. Cannon tells J. Floyd King Church's views on "inferior races."

Jun 12, 1881

Alexander Doniphan describes the Mormon-Missouri War.

Nov 20, 1881

George Q. Cannon articulates the priesthood restriction.


Taylor attributes priesthood restriction to Cain's descendance through Ham's wife.

Apr 13, 1882

Los Angeles Herald states that "more than one colored brother was 'blood atoned' for taking unto himself a white woman."

Oct 25, 1883

H. M. Turner alludes to restriction on Elijah Able.

Nov 14, 1884

Chattanooga Daily Times profiles the lives of Black Saints moving to Utah.

Dec 13, 1884

George Q. Cannon expresses vision of kingdom of God, assuming blacks will not be members.

Dec 27, 1884

Jane Manning James indicates that her race was through Ham.

Dec 27, 1884

James requests Taylor to perform an adoption for her to Joseph and Emma.

Dec 27, 1884

Jane Manning James tells Taylor that Emma invited her to be adopted as a child.

Feb 4, 1885

JSR comments on hesitance for black baptism and black membership prohibition.

Jun 1885

Horatio, a southern states missionary, reports that Black people are welcomed at their meetings, and also reports that the KKK target missionaries.

Apr 1888

Henry Carroll recalls "Black" Pete's activities in Kirtland.

Sep 7, 1890

Joseph invites Jane Manning James to be adopted into family.

Oct 1, 1890

Abraham H. Cannon recalls that Brigham told Lorenzo Snow that blacks couldn't hold priesthood through premortal actions.

Oct 1, 1890

Heber J. Grant records Lorenzo Snow's remembrance of Brigham Young's teachings on the reasons for the priesthood ban.

Oct 6, 1890

Official text of Wilford Woodruff's 1890 manifesto ending plural marriage.

Mar 25, 1893

George Q. Cannon notes the Anglo-Saxon nature of Utah.

Dec 31, 1893

Jane Manning James recalls Joseph welcoming and complimenting her faith.


Jane Manning James writes her autobiography.

Jan 15, 1894

Zina D. H. Young recalls Joseph's and Emma's invitation for James to be adopted.

Feb 14, 1894

William J. Flake's submission for the Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia.

Apr 14, 1894

George Q. Cannon articulates premortal designation for lineage.

Jul 15, 1894

Juvenile Instructor rejects knowledge of neutrality in premortality.

Oct 16, 1894

Woodruff attributes priesthood restriction to Cain's murder of Abel.

Jul 11, 1895

Elder B. H. Roberts argues that some of God's most noble spirit including Jesus Christ, Joseph Smith, and Black people are sometimes born into the most difficult circumstances.

Aug 22, 1895

George Q. Cannon supports upholding restriction in mixed-race scenarios to avoid "complications."

Aug 22, 1895

Cannon states that Joseph taught that the seed of Cain could not receive the priesthood.

Dec 19, 1895

Le Roy Snow offers premortal explanation for certain classes.

Mar 14, 1896

Broad Ax cites Republican operative who supports Samuel Chambers being in legislature.

May 31, 1897

Salt Lake Tribune identifies Green Flake as a "slave."

Jul 20, 1897

Salt Lake Tribune gives a description of Green Flake, "the only colored survivor of the band of '47," as a "vigorous, broad-shouldered, good-natured, bright old gentleman."

Dec 16, 1897

Cannon states that he was told by John Taylor in Nauvoo about Joseph Smith's priesthood ban teachings.

Mar 25, 1899

Broad Ax reports on Alex Bankhead and Marinda Redd's time as slaves and Mormons in Utah.

May 9, 1899

Missionaries tell Broad Ax of kind treatment by Black Americans in South.

Dec 30, 1899

Deseret Evening News debates on what ordinances black people can receive based on Brigham's language.


Thomas W. Young relays premortal explanation that Church leaders use to justify restriction.

Mar 1, 1900

Cannon cites what John Taylor told him in Nauvoo about his conversation with Joseph about the priesthood ban.

Aug 18, 1900

GQC cites reports from BY and JS justifying priesthood ban.

Oct 6, 1900

Grant tells a morality story using a minstrel show and n-word.


Joseph and Emma invite Jane Manning James to board with them.

Jan 2, 1902

Brigham denied Elijah Able's endowment.

Jan 23, 1902

The Spanish Fork Press announces Alex Bankhead's death.

Aug 31, 1903

Jane Manning James asks J. F. Smith for her endowment.

Oct 22, 1903

The Deseret News announces Green Flake's death in 1903.

Oct 23, 1903

The Salt Lake Tribune announces Green Flake's death.

Nov 1, 1903

Salt Lake Tribune cites report of patriarch claiming that Black people have no place in heaven.

Nov 28, 1903

DN repudiates SLT report on EB's funeral.

Dec 17, 1903

Deseret News explains black people's place in heaven.


President Joseph F. Smith lauds Black people who "in their hearts and in their manners" are "far superior to many of their boasting white brothers."

Apr 9, 1905

JFS uses story of GW to show black people should not outdo white people in courtesy.

Apr 7, 1906

J. Golden Kimball says same persecutors of LDS are also lynchers.


B. H. Roberts cites favorably William Benjamin Smith's argument for denying equality to Black people as mix-race marriages would result in a compromise of the biological superiority of white people.

Jan 31, 1907

JFS rejects premortal explanation, affirms Cain explanation.

Apr 18, 1908

Church periodical identifies Black people as the descendants of Cain and Ham, and gives an explanation for their exclusion from priesthood and temple blessings.

Aug 26, 1908

Joseph F. Smith states that all ordinations of Black people must be rendered null and void.

Aug 26, 1908

Joseph Fielding Smith states that Joseph declared Able's ordination "null and void."

Oct 4, 1909

David O. McKay uses "negro" to describe those who reject importance of labor.

Dec 1, 1909

John Whitaker cites "one drop" rule in justifying restricting Nelson Ritchie from receiving sealing.

Dec 1, 1909

Nelson Ritchie tells John Whitaker that his children had been sealed.

Dec 1, 1909

John Whitaker comments on deciding Nelson Ritchie's endowment worthiness.

Aug 31, 1910

Richard Barry comments on LDS views on black people in 20th-century.

Mar 10, 1912

Alvin C. Strong, former missionary in the southern United States, states that "some of the Colored People were the most religious he had ever seen, and that a number had been baptized into the Church."

Apr 17, 1913

Booker T. Washington reports favorably on a two-day stay in Utah, remarking that he was told "the Mormon church treated the colored people well."

Apr 4, 1915

MJB argues for race as a product of premortal designation.

Apr 7, 1916

Rey Pratt hopes for eradication of "racial feelings."

Oct 8, 1916

Walter P. Monson uses "descendants of Cain" to chide those who fail to warn their neighbor.

Oct 4, 1918

HJG uses story to mock black people, uses n-word.


Biographical sketch of Elijah Able's life provided by Andrew Jenson in his Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia.


Jenson gives date for Able's ordination as an Elder and a Seventy.

Feb 27, 1921

William E. Riter asked B. H. Roberts why the Atonement of Christ did not "wash away" the sins of Cain.

Aug 18, 1921

B. H. Roberts comments on canonization process.

Jan 25, 1922

JET invokes Cain to explain priesthood ban origins.

Oct 6, 1922

Charles Penrose suggests that capacity to recognize truth is rooted in race.


Record of Nancy Dennis' burial in Spanish Ford indicating that she was a "Negro".


Utah Ku Klux Klan sees "big increase in membership" despite "powerful opposition by the Mormons."

Apr 4, 1925

Charles Nibley celebrates emancipation of slavery and overthrow of part of Constitution.

May 3, 1926

Pageant depicts Mormons in same light as "negroes."


Joseph Fielding Smith attributes priesthood ban to Joseph Smith's teachings.

Dec 14, 1931

Alice Daniels describes events surrounding the setting apart of her father, William P. Daniels, as branch president.


Gilberto Freyre highlights Brazil as a mult-ethnic zone without a dominant race.

Jun 29, 1935

David O. McKay urges Rulon Howells to focus on Germans in Brazil since they have not intermarried with Black people.


Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia biography of Green Flake.


Len Ross Hope, Sr. and Mary Hope describe their conversion and give their testimonies.

Apr 7, 1939

George F. Richards attributes blackness to premortal unworthiness.

Jan 25, 1940

J. Reuben Clark proposes that the Twelve review past statements and make a ruling on whether "one drop" of blood disqualifies someone from receiving the priesthood.


Sanpete County records include transcription of the indenture of a Native American boy.

Sep 1941

JCM writes to JJM advising segregation of blood in blood banks.

Jun 23, 1942

FP tells ETB to make accommodations for white Church members' discomfort with Blacks.

Mar 1944

Elder Feramorz Y. Fox concludes that members kept their property after consecrating it in the 1850s.

Jun 30, 1944

John A. Widstoe cites premortal unworthiness that black skin could be a mark.


Joseph Fielding Smith explains the application of Moses 7 in missionary work among the "Canaanites."


Elder Harold B. Lee gives a preexistence rationale for the priesthood ban, advocates kindness, and discourages intermarriage.

Aug 31, 1945

JAW rejects notions of "master race."

Apr 6, 1946

Harold B. Lee celebrates teaching against racism at time of WWII.

Apr 6, 1946

CEY uses allegations of miscegenation advocacy as example of "motive questioning."


President J. Reuben Clark, Jr. proposes organization and responsibilities for Black Church members in specially organized branches.


US Interior Secretary Stewart Udall details members who are "Negrophobes" among his reasons for disaffection from the Church.

May 5, 1947

First Presidency tells Spongberg that the Church makes no effort to proselytize black people.

Jun 20, 1947

Heber Meeks inquires of Lowry Nelson over missionary work in Cuba.

Jun 26, 1947

Lowry Nelson replies to Heber Meeks and references past instances of racism, didn't realize was a policy.

Jun 26, 1947

Lowry Nelson criticizes priesthood ban to the First Presidency.

Jul 17, 1947

The First Presidency explains rationale for priesthood ban in a letter to Lowry Nelson.

Jul 23, 1947

Heber Meeks mentions priesthood ban/adjacent teachings as potential reasons to stay out of Cuba.

Sep 30, 1947

Negro Digest criticizes Church for priesthood ban.

Oct 4, 1947

GFR uses black people as cautionary tale on valiance.

Oct 8, 1947

LN criticizes traditions of ban.

Nov 3, 1947

David O. McKay explains that denying the priesthood to Black Saints is part of the eternal plan of God, based on the book of Abraham and related to factors in premortal life.

Nov 3, 1947

David O. McKay explains that denying the priesthood to Black Saints is part of the eternal plan of God, based on the book of Abraham and related to factors in premortal life.

Nov 12, 1947

The First Presidency warns Lowry Nelson to "re-orient your thinking."

Apr 12, 1948

J. Reuben Clark advocates segregation in blood banks "to protect the purity of the blood streams of the people of this Church."

Aug 12, 1948

HJ and RB reject notions that "white blood" differs from "black blood."


1949 First Presidency provides a statement on the priesthood and temple restriction for Black Saints to an anonymous correspondent.


1949 First Presidency provides a statement on the priesthood and temple restriction for Black Saints to an anonymous correspondent.

Mar 3, 1949

In a letter to the editor, BYU student leaders protest unkind racial remarks on campus and racial discrimination at local barber shop.

Aug 17, 1949

LEB produces typescript of 1949 FP statement.

Nov 23, 1949

South Africa mission president Evan P. Wright tells First Presidency that he has six full-time missionaries tracing genealogy of potential priesthood holders.

1950 - 1959

Arthur M. Richardson compiles quotations from Church sources to defend segregation.

Apr 6, 1950

David O. McKay notes that individual freedom is undermined through racial animus.

Nov 20, 1950

Chicago Daily Tribune announces that the American National Red Cross will not segregate blood.

Jul 31, 1951

DrWB dismisses racial identification with blood.

Aug 17, 1951

William E. Berrett provides expanded version of 1949 First Presidency statement dated August 17, 1951.

Aug 17, 1951

Berrett (1951) includes more extensive version of 1949 statement in John J. Stewart text.

Aug 17, 1951

William E. Berrett provides expanded version of 1949 First Presidency statement dated August 17, 1951.

Apr 14, 1952

South Africa mission president Evan P. Wright tells First Presidency that genealogical research has not discovered many eligible priesthood holders.

Jun 17, 1952

South Africa mission president Evan P. Wright tells the First Presidency of the many member and leader challenges related to requirements of the priesthood ban.

Jan 31, 1953

In an unsent letter, Ernest L. Wilkinson recollects David O. McKay confiding to him that the Church's relationship to 'the colored person' was a pressing problem to be faced and resolved.

Mar 3, 1953

In correspondence with O. Boyd Mathias, Rowena J. Miller, on behalf of J. Reuben Clark, counselor in the First Presidency, states that blood is separated by race at LDS hospital but that Clark gives never gives guidance on blood transfusions.

Apr 1953

WRB notes that LDS Hospital segregates black and white blood banks.

1954 - 1958

Abner Howell describes the assignment he received from Church leaders to go on a "mission" to activate Black Latter-day Saints.

Jan 17, 1954

Leroy Duncan notes David O. McKay lifting "black until proven white."

Jan 19, 1954

David O. McKay notes experience dealing with the priesthood ban.

Feb 22, 1954

As a follow up to discussions about Black Saints and the priesthood, Ernest L. Wilkinson forwards an unsent letter addressed to David O. McKay to Adam S. Bennion.

Mar 1954

Sterling M. McMurrin summarizes his conversation with David O. McKayin March 1954 on the priesthood ban wherein McKay stated that it was a "practice, not a doctrine."

Mar 10, 1954

David O. McKay alludes to lifting the "black til proven white" restriction in South Africa.

Mar 24, 1954

Sterling M. McMurrin thanks David O. McKay for a recent visit.

May 17, 1954

WB inquires about ban study committee.

Jun 1, 1954

Ernest L. Wilkinson follows up with Elder Adam S. Bennion on views of Dr. Chauncy Harris "with respect to the Negro problem."

Aug 27, 1954

Elder Mark E. Peterson condemns the civil rights movement and defends Latter-day Saint theology and practices related to priesthood and temple restrictions for Black Saints.

Aug 27, 1954

Mark E. Petersen justifies segregation based on beliefs about consequences of interracial marriage.

Aug 27, 1954

Elder Mark E. Petersen praises the faithfulness of Len and Mary Hope.

Apr 6, 1955

Clifford E. Young celebrates lack of racial animosity in congregation in Hawaii.


Thomas F. O'Dea omits mention of race as a source of strain and conflict among Latter-day Saints.

Oct 7, 1957

Leonard J. Arrington tells Thomas F. O'Dea that the priesthood ban is "one of the biggest stumbling blocks" for some of the "liberals" in the Church.


Bruce R. McConkie defends priesthood ban based on scriptural interpretation.


BRM notes that blacks are not proselytized.


Bruce R. McConkie publishes several articles containing common Latter-day Saint views about Black people in his 1958 volume, Mormon Doctrine.

Oct 11, 1958

Joseph Fielding Smith says that Black people cannot receive patriarchal blessings proving them the blessings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob until the Lord removes the restriction, due to not being valiant in the spirit world.


John J. Stewart writes an influential defense of the Church's policy on the priesthood ban.

Mar 9, 1960

BYU Anthropology professor John L. Sorenson writes Sterling M. McMurrin congratulating him on his talk to the NAACP and observing that doctrines have had little practical effect on discrimination and that Church leadership often have difficulty in getting members to follow them.

Mar 23, 1960

Rita Wheeler reports NAACP officer Albert B. Fritz telling of "deplorable" civil rights situation in Provo, Utah.

Nov 10, 1960

BYU president Ernest L. WIlkinson reports that three members of the Board "were in favor of barring colored students from BYU."


Joseph Fielding Smith directs Andes Mission President not to seek out black converts.

Apr 19, 1961

Lee contests legitimacy of Able's ordination.

Sep 18, 1961

In a letter to First Presidency counselors Moyle and Brown, Stewart L. Udall seeks for a clarification on the Church's position on civil rights.

Sep 18, 1961

In a letter, First Presidency counselors Henry D. Moyle and Hugh B. Brown reply to Stewart L. Udall, stating their understanding of the position of the Church with respect to Black people.

Jun 1962

Clare Boothe Luce reports that Latter-day Saint Michigan governor George Romney's endorsement of civil rights as contrary to the views of the Church.

Jul 14, 1962

Church News reports President Joseph Fielding Smith of the Twelve's rebuttal of Clare Boothe Luce's characterization of the Church's views of Black people and defends Latter-day Saint Michigan governor George W. Romney.


Joseph F. Smith tells Eugene England that no revelation exists on premortal explanation for ban.

Mar 5, 1963

Ambrose Chukwu publishes article in Nigerian newspaper describing the priesthood ban and concludes that Latter-day Saints should be barred from the country.

Apr 10, 1963

Joseph Fielding Smith reports that Joseph instituted priesthood and temple restriction.

Jun 7, 1963

Wallace Turner reports on early 1960s efforts to lift restriction.

Jul 22, 1963

Hugh B. Brown writes Stewart L. Udall about the "serious consideration" currently being given to the matter of Blacks and the priesthood, including a mission to Nigeria.

Oct 1963

Church member Jeff Nye writes an article in Look magazine that criticizes the priesthood ban against Blacks in the Church.

Oct 1963

Editor of Look magazine quotes Joseph Fielding Smith as using the term "darkies" in reference to Blacks.

Oct 5, 1963

Hugh B. Brown says "load him with bitter racial prejudice and you have a Disraeli."

Oct 5, 1963

Redlands Daily Facts newspaper reports that NAACP leader Albert B. Fritz with counselors in First Presidency and agreed to call off planned protests if the Church made an "acceptable" statement on civil rights at General Conference.

Oct 6, 1963

First Presidency makes statement affirming "full civil equality for all of God's children."

Oct 29, 1963

Daily Herald reports that Senator Basil Brown to clarify the "true position of the Mormon church" with respect to Black people.

Oct 31, 1963

R. Greg Nokes discusses claims that discrimination against Black people in Utah is among worst in nation and that the Church has been reluctant to use its influence to pass civil rights legislation.


Hosea Stout describes a court case about slavery.


David O. McKay approves the policy that baptisms for the dead for Black people be performed by non-Blacks as proxies "if this can be accomplished without offense."


Elder Ezra Taft Benson states that the civil rights movement is "part of the pattern for the Communist take over of America."

Jan 23, 1964

Apostle Delbert L. Stapley advises George W. Romney to support segregation on theological grounds.

Jun 1964 - Sep 1964

James R. Clark is advised by Joseph Fielding Smith to explain or omit controversial items from his publication of Messages of the First Presidency.

Jul 8, 1964

Harold B. Lee offers criteria for doctrinal authoritativeness.

Nov 30, 1964

FBI director J. Edgar Hoover disparages Martin Luther King as a leader of the US civil rights movement.


Abner Howell recounts events from his life as a Black Latter-day Saint.


LaMar S. Williams is instructed by President David O. McKay and his counselors that those living in polygamy could be baptized but "were not to engage further into this practice."


LaMar Williams describes instruction received by David O. McKay and other church leaders prior to beginning his assignment as "Presiding Elder of Nigeria."

May 18, 1965

LA suggests Church isn't racist for its support to other ethnic minorities.

Jun 15, 1965

David O. McKay says he is convinced that Nigerians should be baptized, receive the sacrament, and have auxiliary organizations.

Dec 22, 1965

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson told BYU football leaders that he would not discriminate against two Black Latter-day Saint applicants, but also would not want to actively recruit them.


Joseph Fielding Smith states that patriarchal blessings of Black Saints should declare them to be of the lineage of Cain or Canaan.

Aug 1966

In his PhD thesis, David L. Brewer presented quantitative and qualitative data from Utah elites about their perspectives on civil rights and the priesthood and temple resrictions.

Sep 1966

Armand L. Mauss compares Latter-day Saints with Catholics and Protestants and finds that they are slightly more racist than some, and slightly less racist than others.

Nov 22, 1966

Jim Todd offers analysis of ramifications of priesthood ban being lifted.

Feb 24, 1967

Stewart Udall sends a letter with his manuscript to an editor of Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought.

Feb 24, 1967

In an open letter, US Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall calls for the Church to end the priesthood ban.

Apr 14, 1967

Time Magazine says that the priesthood ban is "the doctrine most under fire within the Church," citing Stewart Udall and others.

May 16, 1967

Stewart Udall sends a letter and manuscript calling for the end of the priesthood ban to Church and civic leaders.

May 19, 1967

Wallace Turner, writer for the New York Times, chronicles the reaction to Stewart Udall's letter criticizing the priesthood ban.

May 25, 1967

Apostle Spencer W. Kimball laments the presumption of Stewart Udall in his appeal to the prophet for a lifting of the priesthood ban.

May 26, 1967

Elder Delbert L. Stapley responds to an article on the priesthood ban by Stewart Udall, outlining scriptures and teachings supporting the ban and expressing his regret for the "disservice" the article does to the Church.

Sep 29, 1967

Ezra T. Benson says God only knows why no priesthood for "seed of Cain."

Oct 9, 1967

Bruce R. McConkie teaches that Black people are "lacking spirituality" and that the "doctrine of pre-existence" explains the existence of Black people.

Apr 5, 1968

Jack E. Jarrard reports the "deep sorrow and shock" of the First Presidency at the news of the passing of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Apr 10, 1968

In an editorial in the BYU Daily Universe, Jaron Summers writes that Martin Luther King made the "Ultimate Sacrifice" and comments on the irony of his death by violence.

Apr 13, 1968

Ames Daily Tribune reports that Black athletes at University of Texas El-Paso boycott BYU track meet.

Apr 13, 1968

Black athletes at University of Texas El-Paso boycott BYU track meet.

Apr 16, 1968

In a letter to the editor of the BYU Daily Universe about Martin Luther King, Barbara J. McDaniel laments the lack of interest in King's death on campus.

Apr 24, 1968

In a letter to the editor of the BYU Daily Universe about Martin Luther King, BYU student Barbara J. McDaniel argues that "a great man's death . . . is never 'dead news'".

Apr 26, 1968

In a letter to the editor of the BYU Daily Universe, BYU student John Stone sarcastically replies to Barbara J. McDaniel's letter about Martin Luther King.

Aug 26, 1968

Sterling M. McMurrin writes Llewelyn McKay and his brothers to report a March 1954 conversation with their father, President David O. McKay, where McKay is remembered as saying that the ban is a practice, not a doctrine.

Nov 25, 1968

BYU Daily Universe editor Mike Barney reported that Black players at San Jose State demand a boycott of BYU sports.

Nov 27, 1968

BYU Daily Universe writer Judy Geissler is thankful to be "of the white race" but also wants to end the racial "double standard" in America.

Nov 27, 1968

BYU Daily Universe editor describes a call by San Jose State students for a athletic boycott of BYU.

Nov 27, 1968

BYU Daily Universe sports editor, Roger Gillespie, criticizes San Jose State for its sports boycott and their "misunderstanding" of the Church's view.

Dec 12, 1968

Alan A. Enke writes a letter to the BYU Daily Universe criticizing the racial views expressed by editors Judy Geissler and Roger Gillespie.

Dec 13, 1968

BYU Daily Universe editor Pierre Hathaway says that there is no way to tell the number of Black people applying to BYU.


Jacob Hamblin records instances of Native American slavery.


Hugh B. Brown comments on what makes teachings binding.


Elder Ezra Taft Benson says "there is nothing wrong with civil rights," but accuses Martin Luther King, Jr. of being involved with communism.


Ernest L. Wilkinson, Gordon B. Hinckley, and Thomas S. Monson develop a public statement describing an updated BYU Admissions Policy.


Elder Ezra Taft Benson warns that communists intend to use the civil rights movement to destroy America, deceiving both Black and white people.

Jan 3, 1969

BYU President Ernest L. Wilkinson reported that a "sit-down strike" by Black players at Stanford University had been planned for the BYU basketball game.

Jan 9, 1969

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson records that the Board of Trustees approved the development of a statement on Black athletes and recruitment.

Mar 27, 1969

Following an investigation, Hollis B. Bach notifies Ernest L. Wilkinson by letter that BYU is deemed to be in compliance with the Civils Rights Act of 1964.

May 5, 1969

Judy Geissler, a BYU Daily Universe editor, reports on plans and challenges for "Brotherhood Week," including a BYU administration quota on Black speakers that led to cancellation of some events.

May 12, 1969

The Daily Universe reported BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson as saying there was no annual quota of Black speakers on campus, rather than the Board of Trustees deemed the three already selected for the current year as being "sufficient."

Oct 17, 1969

SBCS comments on black UW football players opposition to ban.

Oct 19, 1969

Eugene Register-Guard reports on the dismissal of fourteen Black University of Wyoming football players for revealing their plan to wear black armbands in protest during a game against BYU.

Oct 23, 1969

The Salt Lake Tribune reports that BYU administrators were considering a statement on civil rights written by BYU student officers in the wake of recent protests by other universities against the school.

Oct 27, 1969

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson reports that disagreements among the Twelve on BYU policy on Black students required postponement of a special Board meeting.

Oct 29, 1969

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson reportedly requested a meeting with the First Presidency about Black students, but was told President McKay was too ill.

Oct 30, 1969

South Idaho Press writes about legal support for University of Wyoming Black football players.

Nov 3, 1969

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson submitted a statement discussing admission policies in hopes to quell rising concerns about protests by other schools about Church and school policies toward Black people.

Nov 3, 1969

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson authors a memo to the Board of Trustees detailing recent protests against BYU due to accusactions of racism and proposes new recruitment and admissions policies.

Nov 3, 1969

Sports Illustrated reporter Pat Putnam recounts the tensions following the dismissal of fourteen University of Wyoming football players for their planned protest against BYU, and follow-on repercussions "all across the country."

Nov 13, 1969

Stanford University will not schedule new athletic events against BYU football becuase of priesthood ban.

Nov 29, 1969

Ernest Wilkinson maintains BYU is equitable to black students.

Nov 30, 1969

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson participates in a meeting of the Western Athletic Conference and finds a "very strong feeling" against the priesthood ban.

Dec 3, 1969

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson reports that a policy for recruitment of Black students was approved at the previous Board of Trustees meeting.

Dec 15, 1969

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency saying that the origins of ban are not known.

Dec 15, 1969

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency saying that the origins of ban are not known.

Dec 15, 1969

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency supporting civil rights and discussing priesthood ban.

Dec 25, 1969

First Presidency counselor Hugh B. Brown is reported by the Salt Lake Tribune as saying the priesthood ban "will change in the not-too-distant future."

Dec 25, 1969

LK quotes HBB's prediction re: lifting the ban.

Dec 25, 1969

Salt Lake Tribune reported Stanford University severs athletic relations with Brigham Young University due to the priesthood ban.

Dec 28, 1969

Stanford University president Kenneth Pitzer suggests that the recognition of LDS Students Association is in jeopardy because of LDS "racial doctrine."


Stephen G. Taggart argues that Joseph Smith originated the priesthood/temple ban in response to conditions in the South and later developed a theological justification in the Book of Abraham.

Jan 10, 1970

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency saying that the origins of ban are not known.

Jan 10, 1970

N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown sign a statement under the name of the First Presidency supporting civil rights and discussing priesthood ban.

Jan 15, 1970

Roger Porter reports a letter and statements by Sterling M. McMurrin regarding the latter's recollection of a conversation with President David O. McKay about whether the priesthood and temple ban was a doctrine or a matter of practice.

Jan 21, 1970

SCOTUS rules that schools that segregate aren't tax-exempt.

Feb 7, 1970

Merced Wards help a Black Baptist Church with a building project.

Apr 1970

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson published and distributed a four-page booklet to explain the position of BYU and the Church "with respect to civil rights and the Negro."

Jun 21, 1970

NYT reports on conservative/liberal discussion on priesthood restriction.

Jul 11, 1970

IRS announces that private schools that racially discriminate will lose their tax exempt status.

Oct 3, 1970

Members of a student fact-finding committee at the University of Arizona propose measures for increasing exposure of BYU to Black people and recommend that athletic protests against BYU related to the priesthood ban be suspended.

Oct 8, 1970

Tucson Daily Citizen publishes editorial describing the University of Arizona's decision to recommend that "Western Athletic Conference schools suspent further demonstrations" against BYU due to accusations of racism.

Nov 25, 1970

Caleb A. Shreeve, Sr. writes letter to First Presidency stating that Joseph Smith withdrew the priesthood from Elijah Able.

Dec 1970

Cumorah's Southern Messenger reports David O. McKay lifting the genealogy requirement for ordination in South Africa.

Dec 1970

Potential converts are instructed to tell Church leaders if they ever discover Black ancestors in their lineage.

Dec 31, 1970

The Church uses Cain justification in black ordinations in Brazil.

Feb 27, 1971

BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson is "surprised and shocked" to see the number of Black basketball players from out of state playing for a Twin Falls Junior College team.

Mar 25, 1971

Berry was endowed and sealed after her death.

May 23, 1971

In a meeting of university presidents from the Western Athletic Conference, BYU president Ernest L. Wilkinson reports that he successfully defended BYU against charges of racial discrimination.

May 12, 1972

Wallace Turner cites statistics regarding percentage of Mormons/non-Mormons who think blacks want to destroy Church.

Jul 8, 1972

Wallace Turner reports Gordon B. Hinckley as saying that the lifting of the ban will require a revelation to the president of the Church.

Jul 8, 1972

Harold B. Lee cites 1969 First Presidency statement when asked about the priesthood ban.

Jul 17, 1972

Newsweek reports on Harold B. Lee assuming the presidency of the Church and comments that the priesthood ban can only be changed by revelation.

Aug 21, 1972

Dan L. Thrapp reports Harold B. Lee saying that only the Lord could answer whether there was any possibility of a change in the priesthood ban.

Sep 26, 1972

John Keahey reports President Harold B. Lee as saying that it's only a matter of time before the Negro achieves full status in the church.


Hugh W. Nibley concludes that the Priesthood restriction has its origin with God.


Joseph Anderson writes letter on behalf of the First Presidency to Herbert A. Ford reassuring him that the priesthood restriction will someday be removed.


Lester Bush reports on the Presidency counselors discussing lifting the ban after seeing the writings of Stephen G. Taggart.


Eugene England writes that Joseph Fielding Smith told him that "you don't have to believe that Negroes are denied the priesthood because of the pre-existence."


Joseph Fielding Smith and J. Reuben Clark discuss the "one drop" policy in Brazil, missionary work in Nigeria and suggest a plan in which Black Saints could "participate in the work."

Apr 1973

LEB writes seminal article offering critical origin analysis of priesthood/temple restriction.

Dec 30, 1973

President Spencer W. Kimball records in his journal his ordination as president of the Church.

Feb 1974

Immediately following his ordination as president of the Church, Spencer W. Kimball states that a change in the priesthood restriction could come, but only through revelation.

May 15, 1974

SCOTUS ruling refers to the IRS notification to Bob Jones University that they are no longer eligible for tax exempt status.

Jun 9, 1974

Russell M. Nelson recounts a dream where Harold B. Lee told him that he would have lifted the ban if he had continued to live.

Jul 24, 1974

The Miami News write about perceived legal pressure to change church policy.

Jul 28, 1974

New York Times reports that NAACP leadership expresses intent to file lawsuit against the Boy Scouts due to Latter-day Saint policy designating deacon's quorum presidents as senior patrol leaders, thus excluding Black boys from this office.

Aug 29, 1974

Boy Scouts ask for dismissal of NAACP lawsuit alleging racial discrimination in Latter-day Saint troops due to link between scout leadership and priesthood positions.

Nov 7, 1974

Federal judge Willis W. Ritter dismisses NAACP lawsuit against the Boy Scouts due to perceived racial discrimination in leadership selection for Later-day Saint troops.


James R. Clark's book entitled "Messages of the First Presidency" omits letters of the First Presidency discussing Black Saints and the priesthood.


Ernest L. Wilkinson, Leonard J. Arrington, and Bruce C. Hafen write about the favorable turning of opinion toward BYU in early 1970 after two years of protests relating to racial issues.

Feb 28, 1975 - Mar 2, 1975

Spencer W. Kimball announces that a temple will be built in São Paolo, Brazil.

Apr 3, 1976

The Bakersfield Californian reports that Douglas A. Wallace baptized and then ordained a Black man to the priesthood without authorization.

Sep 7, 1976

President Spencer W. Kimball advocates marrying those of "the same racial background generally."

Oct 5, 1976

New York Times reports that Douglas A. Wallace, who ordained a Black man, is barred from attending General Conference after threatened to disrupt the meeting.

1977 - 1978

James E. Faust highlights efforts of black Brazilians to contribute to temple construction.

Mar 11, 1977

US President Jimmy Carter meets with Church President Spencer W. Kimball and Latter-day Saint members of the House of Representatives at the White House. The topic of conversation is unknown.

Jun 1977

BRM tells SWK that there is no scriptural barrier to lifting the ban.


LeGrand Richards discusses the role of Brazil in Official Declaration 2.


LeGrand Richards discusses the role of Brazil in Official Declaration 2.

Apr 26, 1978

President Joseph F. Smith and counselors Winder and Lund write David O. McKay in answer to questions about the priesthood restriction that they state originated with Joseph Smith, Elijah Able, and the burial place of Joseph and Hyrum Smith.

Apr 1978

Newell Bringhurst argues that the origins of the priesthood ban are unclear.

Jun 8, 1978

First Presidency letter from June 8, 1978 announcing the revelation on the priesthood.

Jun 9, 1978

Deseret News publishes First Presidency press release announcing the revelation on the priesthood.

Jun 9, 1978

Leonard Arrington reports an inquiry by Elder Neal A. Maxwell that suggested he was preparing a memorandum on the priesthood restriction for President Kimball.

Jun 10, 1978

In 1973, President Kimball described his thought and prayer and openness to revelation on the subject of the priesthood and temple ban.

Jun 11, 1978

US President Jimmy Carter praises the priesthood revelation.

Jun 13, 1978

Spencer W. Kimball said the Church won't extend the priesthood to women.

Jun 13, 1978

Leonard J. Arrington records hearing a report that the construction of the Brazil temple was "one of the immediately precipitating factors of the new revelation."

Jun 17, 1978

The Church News publishes previous statements from Church President Spencer W. Kimball discouraging interracial marriage.

Jun 17, 1978

Church News publishes priesthood revelation.

Jun 17, 1978

Church News shares comments of Monroe Fleming and other Black members about the announcement of the priesthood revelation.

Jun 18, 1978

Church spokesman Don LeFevre affirms that, despite the reversal of the priesthood and temple ban, mixed marriages are still discouraged.

Jun 22, 1978

BYU professor Edwin O. Haroldsen supervises students in a survey finding that the overwhelming majority of Utah County residents are pleased with the news of the priesthood revelation.

Jun 27, 1978

Leonard J. Arrington reports a meeting with Jay M. Todd about the circumstances of the priesthood revelation.

Jun 30, 1978

Elder Bruce R. McConkie, apostle, gives a detailed account of the events surrounding the revelation on the priesthood.

Jul 4, 1978

Fundamentalist Ogden Kraut questions the legitimacy of the priesthood revelation.

Jul 23, 1978

Joseph LeMoine Jensen criticizes the Church for lifting priesthood and temple restrictions.

Jul 23, 1978

J. LaMoine Jenson (aka Joseph Jensen) criticizes and laments the reversal of the priesthood and temple ban as a repudiation of scripture and earlier Latter-day Saint prophets.

Jul 28, 1978

The Associated Press reports an interview with J. LaMoine Jenson, under the pseudonym of Joseph Jensen, wherein he gives his reasons for opposing the priesthood revelation.

Sep 3, 1978

Joseph Freeman Jr. is the first known Black person to be ordained to the priesthood in modern times.

Sep 28, 1978

Anthony Obinna calls on President Spencer W. Kimball to speedily establish the Church in Nigeria.

Sep 30, 1978

Elder N. Eldon Tanner announces the First Presidency announcing the priesthood revelation at General Conference.

Oct 23, 1978

At a mission conference in Johannesburg, South Africa, President Spencer W. Kimball describes the events of the priesthood revelation in his own voice.

Oct 30, 1978

Spencer W. Kimball dedicates the São Paulo Brazil Temple.

Nov 4, 1978

In his first address to Saints from South Africa, Rhodesia, and South West Africa, President Spencer W. Kimball declares that the work of the Lord must go forward and those who fight against it "will find disillusionment and misery."

Nov 4, 1978

Church News reports that two couples have received visas to go to Nigeria for one year to "do religious service."


Ronald K. Esplin concludes that the priesthood and temple restriction was introduced by Joseph Smith in Nauvoo.


Ronald K. Esplin states his view that Brigham's views on priesthood ban were rooted in revelation.


Esplin concludes that Brigham's believed the priesthood ban was rooted in revelation.


Joseph Freeman tells of his experiences following his having been the first Black man ordained to the priesthood in modern times.


Bruce R. McConkie replaces article on "Negroes" in the 1979 edition of Mormon Doctrine with a summary of the revelation on the priesthood, and modifies the article on "Ham."


Joseph Freeman reports that unauthorized ordination of a Black Saint sowed division in the Genesis Group.


Elder Joseph Fielding Smith disputes Clare Boothe Luce's characterization of the views of the Church toward Black people and defends the views of Latter-day Saint Michigan governor George W. Romney.

Jan 6, 1979

Gerry Avant cites Spencer W. Kimball saying that the revelation was not received by his predecessors because "the time had not yet come for it."

Mar 5, 1979

Elder Carlos E. Asay informs the two missionary couples serving in Nigeria and Ghana that men who are living in polygamy should not be baptized.

Mar 6, 1979

Sterling M. McMurrin recounts conversation with David O. McKay about the priesthood ban and recounts related events through 1970.

Sep 28, 1979

Anthony Obinna recalls his baptism and the organization of the first branch in Aboh, Nigeria on 21 November 1978.

Dec 1980

Brian A. Espenshied is called to be mission president of the new Africa West Mission.

Dec 1980

Anthony U. Obinna, a pioneer of the Church in Nigeria, tells the conversion story of his family.

Dec 31, 1980

AO writes letters asking for the gospel to come to Nigeria.


Bruce R. McConkie gives an account of the powerful confirming experience of the Twelve following Spencer W. Kimball's priesthood revelation, and its implications.


Johannesburg 2nd Branch President James P. Van Zyle reports on organization of the branch and 1981 activities.


Atlas of World Cultures defines the term "Hottentot."

Jan 22, 1981

Elma Singleton Bradshaw records first baptisms in Aba, Nigeria.

May 6, 1981

Lamar S. Williams grateful that he was called back home from Nigeria before the Biafra War broke out.

May 6, 1981

LaMar and Nyal Williams report how they were called to serve as missionaries in Nigeria.

May 6, 1981

LaMar and Nyal Williams report that in addition to the mission leaders, six or seven couples were serving in Nigeria and Ghana in May 1981.

May 6, 1981

LaMar and Nyal Williams discuss how baptisms were stopped for a while during their mission to Nigeria.

May 6, 1981

LaMar Williams recounts the origins of the Genesis Group.

Aug 9, 1981

Johannesburg 2nd Branch officers are sustained at the time of branch organization.


HM describes experience at Saõ Paulo Temple in 1982 interview.


LeGrand Richards sees Wilford Woodruff at a meeting of General Authorities discussing the priesthood revelation.


Historian Larry R. Gerlach cites a 1924 Ku Klux Klan periodical stating that there was "powerful opposition by the Mormons" to the organization in Utah.

Mar 26, 1982

Ernie Taylor in Daily Universe reported the difficulties in separating culture and religion as the Church is expanding in Africa.

May 17, 1982

Leonel de Séa Maia recalls that Gordon B. Hinckley said that the Lord had told him that the priesthood restriction was a type of test.


Mabey recalls Obinna's comment on missionary work to West Africa.


Sterling M. McMurrin disbelieves claims about the historicity and divinely inspired origins of the Book of Mormon.


Peggy Petersen Barton relates the delight of Elder Mark E. Petersen after he learned the news of the revelation on the priesthood.


President Joseph F. Smith blesses Black South African convert William P. Daniels and states that he would someday be able to hold the priesthood.

Jan 1, 1985 - Mar 31, 1985

Lowell L. Bennion recounted that David O. McKay approved previously denied priesthood and temple blessings for two siblings.


Lowry Nelson describes his reaction to the First Presidency letter on the priesthood restriction and expresses his opinion that J. Reuben Clark authored the response.

Sep 1, 1985

First Presidency counselor Gordon B. Hinckley dedicates the Johannesburg South Africa Temple.


Reed L. Clegg organizes Friends of West Africa, the first known Latter-day Saint non-profit humanitarian organization focused on West Africa.

Jul 1986

Breck England quotes Elder Marvin J. Ashton about his experience during the confirmation of the priesthood revelation.


1974 planning sessions excluded sub-Saharan Africa from missionary work until priesthood ban lifted.


Sheri L. Dew records Elder Ezra Taft Benson's feelings following the prayer confirming the revelation on the priesthood.


Jerald and Sandra Tanner criticize the fact that Official Declaration 2 is a statement that says "a revelation was received" rather than the text of the revelation itself.


Latter-day Saint Solicitor General Rex Lee recuses himself from a tax case related to segregation because of his previous involvement in a case involving the Church.

Sep 8, 1987

Elder Boyd K. Packer states that the Church cannot take unneeded baggage from the Utah Church if it wants to move into other nations throughout the world.

Sep 22, 1987

Oscar W. McConkie Jr. describes circumstances and includes certificate of recognition for the Church in Zaire.

Oct 1987

Dennis N. Valdes argues that slavery in Mexico gradually declined.


Marion G. Romney describes the media impact of the news of the priesthood revelation.

May 21, 1988

Church News reports that First African stake outside of South Africa is formed in Aba, Nigeria.

Jun 5, 1988

The Associated Press interviews Neal A. Maxwell and Dallin H. Oaks about the reasons for lifting the priesthood and temple ban.

Oct 1988

Gordon B. Hinckley gives an account of the revelatory experience of the First Presidency and the Twelve on June 1, 1978.


MDH comments on how missionaries did not work with black proselytes.

Apr 28, 1989

Len and Mary Hope are asked not to attend church because of their race.

May 18, 1989

MDH comments on racial attitudes during mission to Cincinnati (esp. re: L/MH).

Oct 1, 1989

Julian M. Sanders writes a letter to Ezra Ezra Taft Benson citing Benson and David O. McKay in support of his opposition to a holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Oct 5, 1989

Steve Yozwiak reports comments on a letter from Julian M. Sanders to Ezra Taft Benson citing Church leaders and others to oppose a holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.

1990 - 1999

Richard Packham falsely claims to publish Spencer W. Kimball's "long-suppressed" priesthood revelation and then admits his fraud.

1990 - 1999

Richard Packham falsely claims to publish Spencer W. Kimball's "long-suppressed revelation on the Black Race and the Priesthood."


Glen G. Fisher heard Harold B. Lee promise two young ladies of African descent in South Africa that if they married in their race and were faithful, they would have every blessing of the gospel.


J. Anderson describes the fundamentalist United Apostolic Brethren fundamentalist group which, among other things, opposed the lifting of the restriction on priesthood ordination for Black Saints.


Paulina Kumah writes newspaper article documenting bizarre myths circulating in Ghana about the Church.


Eleanor Knowles summarizes and quotes Elder Howard W. Hunter's account of the experiences surrounding the priesthood revelation.


Helvécio Martins describes experiences leading up to his call as a Seventy.


Helvécio Martins recounts blessings and spiritual impressions that foreshadowed the priesthood revelation.


Francis M. Gibbons recounts the aftermath of a meeting of the First Presidency and the Twelve where LeGrand Richards saw Wilford Woodruff.


Mission president Glen L. Rudd recounts being inspired to tell a man he had no African heritage despite his appearance.


Lester E. Bush, Jr. summarizes his view of important interpretive nuances in Sterling McMurrin's report of David O. McKay's statement that the priesthood ban was policy not doctrine.

Apr 1995

Sondra Jones describes the Indian slave trade in Utah before 1852.


David O. McKay describing the priesthood and temple ban as a practice rather than a doctrine, as reported by Sterling M. McMurrin.


Sterling M. McMurrin reports that he arranged meetings with the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and drafted a First Presidency statement on civil rights read at the October 1963 General Conference.


David O. McKay describing the priesthood and temple ban as a practice rather than a doctrine, as reported by Sterling M. McMurrin.

May 1996

Elder David B. Haight describes the confirmation he received in the prayer following President Spencer W. Kimball's receiving the priesthood revelation.


Elwin C. Robison describes similarities of the general congregational spaces in the Kirtland and Nauvoo Temples.

Jan 5, 1997

E. Gary Smith casts doubt on the idea that the Brethren would have approved patriarchal blessings for Black Saints prior to the priesthood revelation.


Leonard J. Arrington reports that an apostolic committee found no scriptural support for restriction.


Lester E. Bush recounts conversation where he understood that President Harold B. Lee had received a manifestation that the priesthood ban was "divinely instituted."


Edwin B. Firmage claims Hugh B. Brown proposed to lift the priesthood restriction but Harold B. Lee pressured him to sign a statement saying it was "doctrinally based."


Rendell Mabey describes the events surrounding the first baptisms in Nigeria.


Leonard J. Arrington reports Adam S. Bennion's mention of 1954 deliberations on the priesthood restriction and that David O. McKay's fervent prayers on the matter concluded "without result."


Leonard J. Arrington reports that Harold B. Lee fasted and prayed intently for guidance about the priesthood ban.

May 18, 1998

Larry Stammer provides report on initial efforts to repudiate the ban.

May 19, 1998

The Church states that the LA Times story about an earlier plan to retract "doctrines concerning blacks" is incorrect.

Nov 3, 1998

EDL cites DMK's comments from SWK about teaching in Africa.


Janath Russell Cannon and Edwin Q. "Ted" Cannon, Jr. relate the events of the first baptisms in Nigeria.


Sondra Jones describes Native American enslavement in Utah.

Oct 19, 1999

In 1999, Richard Jackson recalls McKay saying Lord told him not to inquire about ban further.

Mar 11, 2001

Kathy Erickson claims that in 1978 the federal government threatened loss of tax exemptions unless it allowed Black members full membership.

Apr 5, 2001

Church spokesperson Bruce L. Olsen refutes the idea that the priesthood revelation had anything to do with "federal tax policy or any other secular law."


Historian D. Michael Quinn reports J. Reuben Clark's recommendation that branches for Black Saints be created and that men be organized into preparatory Aaronic priesthood groups.


J. Reuben Clark expresses the difficulty of resolving the question of "negro blood."


Don F. Colvin describes the rooms used for ordinances in the attic story of the Nauvoo Temple.


Susan and Harvey Black discuss how Able participated in baptisms for the dead in Nauvoo.


Margaret Blair Young and Darius Aidan Gray describe the priesthood ordinations and temple work of Black members following the priesthood revelation.


Glenn L. Pace recounts the experiences of a young Ghanaian member during the "Freeze."


Presiding Bishopric counselor Glenn L. Pace describes how Ghanaian missionaries whose missions were cut short by the "Freeze" later returned to their service.


Thomas G. Alexander describes racial segregation in 20th-century Utah.


Emmanuel Kissi and Matthew Heiss discuss accusations of racism and the end of the "Freeze" in Ghana.


Ghanaian Church pioneer Emmanuel Kissi summarizes contacts of West African friends with the Church between 1959 and 1978.


Emmanuel Kissi and Matthew Heiss describes Ghanaian government suspicions that led to the "Freeze" and how the Church initiated an emergency plan.

Jan 17, 2004

The Church News reports the dedication of the first temple in Ghana, which is the second in Africa and the first in West Africa.


Emmanuel Kissi reports on perceptions of Church association with CIA in Ghana.


According to Edward L. Kimball, Elder Mark E. Petersen continued to discourage interracial marriages after the priesthood revelation.


W. James Jacob describes how a racial priesthood ban was lifted in Fiji in 1955.


Edward L. Kimball writes that letters received in the few days after the priesthood revelation by Spencer W. Kimball were overwhelmingly positive.


Spencer W. Kimball describes the strenuous effort required to receive revelation.


According to Edward L. Kimball, Elder Delbert E. Stapley sustained the priesthood revelation.


Edward L. Kimball reports that Spencer W. Kimball received a letter from the First Presidency that Black Saints could receive patriarchal blessings.


Edward L. Kimball reports that the First Presidency and the Twelve discussed and approved patriarchal blessings for Len and Mary Hope.


Edward L. Kimball quotes the accounts of several apostles who were present at the June 1, 1978 meeting where the revelation on the priesthood was confirmed.


Edward L. Kimball reports several individuals who had spiritual premonitions about the lifting of the priesthood ban.


Edward L. Kimball reports that Spencer W. Kimball asked Bruce R. McConkie to edit his account of the revelation to avoid possible misunderstanding.


Edward L. Kimball recounts Spencer W. Kimball's prayers in the temple and consultation with the First Presidency and the Twelve in the months prior to the announcement of the revelation on the priesthood.


Edward L. Kimball reports that Spencer W. Kimball praised the Hope couple for their faithfulness.


Leonard J. Arrington stated that Harold B. Lee prayed in the temple about the ban and received the answer "not yet."


F. Burton Howard reported that Spencer W. Kimball had been praying about the priesthood and temple restriction for 15 years.


Gregory Prince summarizes accounts of several individuals who were aware of David O. McKay's intense prayers about the priesthood and temple ban.


David O. McKay says that the Book of Abraham is the only reason for the priesthood ban.


Gregory A. Prince relates the circumstances of David O. McKay's authorizing the priesthood to be conferred upon Fijians, states McKay told his counselors "there is evidence that [Fijians] are not of the Negroid races."


Gregory Prince summarizes Sterling McMurrin's account saying that David O. McKay's sons verified McMurrin's account of McKay's 1954 statement about the priesthood ban being a policy rather than a doctrine.

Feb 20, 2005

Joseph LaMoine Jenson, author of advertisement critical of priesthood restriction, becomes leader of the Apostolic United Brethren.

Jun 9, 2005

Meridian Magazine article summarizes biography of Gladys Knight, including the activities of the Saints Unified Choir.

Aug 8, 2005

Church News reports dedication of first temple in Nigeria.

Nov 3, 2005

Joseph William Billy Johnson organizes a "Latter-day Saint" church in Ghana in 1964.

Dec 20, 2005

Cheryl Stewart Osborn reports the nomination of Saints Unified Voices for a Grammy Award.

Feb 9, 2006

Cheryl Stewart Osborn describes the musical legacy of Gladys Knight and the Saints Unified Voices (SUV) Choir.

Mar 4, 2006

Elder Jeffrey R. Holland tells interviewer Helen Whitney that "folklore" about the priesthood and temple ban "must never be perpetuated."

May 2006

Gordon B. Hinckley tells Church members "there is no basis for racial hatred . . . in this Church."


Protests againts BYU's policies on Blacks carried out by University of Washington Black Student Union in March 1970.


National Humanities Center collection of Works Progress Administration (WPA) accounts of formerly enslaved people.

May 1, 2007

PBS Miniseries "The Mormons" airs on April 20 and May 1, 2007, containing many remarks from members and non-members about the priesthood revelation.

Jul 20, 2007

Elder Dallin H. Oaks describes to Helen Whitney his joy at the news and the process of revelation that guided the answers to prayer about the priesthood ban.

Jul 20, 2007

President Boyd K. Packer describes the process of revelation involved in the priesthood revelation to interviewer Helen Whitney.


Mark E. Peterson notes an article that traces Priesthood ban to Brigham Young rather than Joseph Smith.


Edward L. Kimball cites Spencer W. Kimball's statements that the Lord's timetable operates independent of pressure.


Edward L. Kimball states that by 1978 the pressure against the Church was relatively low.

Jun 14, 2008

R. Scott Lloyd reports on a Church celebration of the thirtieth anniversary of the priesthood revelation.


Darius Gray and Margaret Blair Young publish the script of their film telling the story of Black members of the Church.


Gregory Prince, Darius Gray, and Margaret Blair Young discuss the story of the making of the film "Nobody Knows: The Untold Story of Black Mormons."


J. Reuben Clarks records the Quorum of the Twelve disagreeing on the "one drop" of blood rule for priesthood exclusion.


J. Reuben Clark told that transfused blood disintegrates rapidly.


J. Reuben Clark told by doctors that LDS Hospital segregated blood and that blood changes after a certain amount of time.


Heidi S. Swinton recounts President Thomas S. Monson's experiences surrounding the priesthood revelation.


Barbara Kennedy Law describes discussions of her father, David M. Kennedy, with President Spencer W. Kimball about lifting the priesthood and temple restriction from sub-Saharan Africa.


J. Reuben Clark raises no objection to local church leaders joining "as individuals" a civic organization to "restrict and control negro settlement" in their stake.

May 21, 2010

Peggy Fletcher Stack reports that Bruce R. McConkie's Mormon Doctrine has gone out of print thirty-two years after the reversal of the priesthood and temple ban.

Jun 2010

Thomas Guglielmo reports that the American Red Cross continued racial segregation of blood until 1950.

Jun 2010

Thomas Guglielmo reports that in 1941 the Red Cross officially implemented refused blood from Black donors.


Black Latter-day Saint Keith N. Hamilton affirms that the priesthood ban "was both instituted and lifted by the Lord.


Christopher Rich argues that Utah's servitude law was intended to end slavery.

Feb 28, 2012

Jason Horowitz reports BYU Professor Randy Bott's description of Church theology for the priesthood ban, a theology that had previously been disavowed.

Feb 29, 2012

The Church disavows teachings and doctrines expressed by BYU Professor Randy Bott in an interview with a Washington Post reporter.

Feb 29, 2012

BYU Students Katie Cutler and Stephen Whitaker say that Randy Bott told them he had been misquoted and misrepresented.

Feb 29, 2012

Church disavows purported statement of Randy Bott and condemns past and current racism, in and out of the Church.


Genesis 10:15–20 (KJV) outlines the lineage of Ham and Canaan.


Official Declaration 2 describes the events that marked the official end to the priesthood ban.


Jesus states that no one can serve two masters.


Jeremiah 34:8-22 condemns Judahites who promised to free slaves but did not do so.


In a revelation, Joseph Smith said that no one should be in bondage to another.


Captain Moroni finds joy in keeping his people out of slavery.


The king of the Anti-Nephi-Lehis says his people will be slaves to the Nephites.


Deuteronomy 21:10-14 says that an Israelite cannot enslave a woman he captured in war and married.


Joseph Smith prophesies that slaves will rise up against their masters.


Genesis 24 describes Abraham's slave searching for a wife for Isaac.


Noah says Canaan will serve his brothers.


Genesis 37 says that Joseph was sold into slavery in Egypt.


Exodus 23:12 says that slaves must rest on the Sabbath.


Paul calls himself a servant (slave) of Jesus.


Deuteronomy 23:15-16 says that a person should not return a slave who escapes to them.


Deuteronomy 5:14-15 says that slaves should not work on the Sabbath.


Exodus 21 lists slave laws for the Israelites.


Amos 2:6 condemns sellings others into slavery for profit.


Exodus 22:1-3 says that a man can be sold to pay for stolen property.


Exodus 20:10 says that slaves must honor the Sabbath.


Giddianhi invites the Nephites to become Gadianton Robbers.


Exodus 12:44 says that slaves are to celebrate Passover.


Limhi says it is better to be slaves to the Nephites than to pay tribute to the Lamanites.


Nephi interacts with Zoram (a servant of Laban).


Deuteronomy 15: 12-18 gives codes for freeing slaves or making them a permanent member of the household.


Leviticus 25:39-55 describes slave laws and laws redeeming slaves.


LDS proclamation on government says that it is not right to interfere with "bond-servants."


Leah and Rachel give their slaves to Jacob as concubines.

Feb 21, 2013

Armand Mauss discusses efforts to campaign church leadership to repudiate ban.

Feb 21, 2013

Armand L. Mauss provides background leading to ban repudiation campaign.

Mar 21, 2013

In a debate about Native American servitude in Utah, Orson Pratt voices opposition.

Oct 5, 2013

New York Times reports Dieter F. Uchtdorf as acknowledging that members and church leaders "made mistakes".

Oct 5, 2013

Dieter F. Uchtdorf states that "there have been times when members or leaders in the Church have simply made mistakes."

Dec 1, 2013

In the Gospel Topics Essay, the Church denounces past theories and racism.


Russell W. Stevenson summarizes the subject matter of his documentary history of Black Saints in the global Church.


Heather Andrea Williams describes how enslavers maintained control of slaves.

Jun 8, 2014

Tad Walch reports reaction of Church members and non-members to the Gospel Essay on Race and the Priesthood.

Aug 27, 2014

In an article in the Preston Citizen, Tamu Smith and Zandra Vranes discuss their blog, their radio show, and their new book.

Nov 20, 2014

Lawrence J. Mackey describes South African mission policy in which he was "not allowed to proselyte" among Black people.


Matthew L. Harris and Newell G. Bringhurst summarize the contents of their documentary history of the priesthood and temple ban.


W. Paul Reeve summarizes his study relating the idea of a racialized 19th-century marginalization of Latter-day Saints to the history of the priesthood ban.


Reeve discusses historical reasons for the priesthood ban.


Oscar McConkie, Jr. provides unread paragraphs in a General Conference conference talk by President Spencer W. Kimball describing the priesthood revelation.

Jan 30, 2015

Elder Dallin H. Oaks says the church doesn't "seek apologies, … and we don't give them."

Jul 24, 2015

George W. Romney is honored for his advocacy of civil rights as governor of Michigan in 1963.


Richard E. Turley Jr and Jeffrey G. Cannon observe that branch organization presidencies consisted of black and white members "working closely together."


Richard E. Turley Jr. and Jeffrey G. Cannon state that in 1968 it was the policy of the South African mission not to proselyte among Black people.


Elder Khumbulani Mdletshe reports persistent myths in South Africa about the reasons for the priesthood restriction.


Historians Richard E. Turley Jr and Jeffrey G. Cannon described the number of baptisms of Black converts between 1978 and 1980.

Feb 26, 2016

Elder M. Russell Ballard says that "gone are the days" when Church members should avoid hard questions.


Thomas S. Monson recalls the organization and early days of the Genesis Group.

Aug 13, 2017

Church Newsroom publishes the Church's condemnation of the Charlottesville riots that took place on August 11–12, 2017.

Aug 15, 2017

Following violent demonstrations in Charlottesville, Virginia, the Church condemns white supremacy attitudes and actions.

Aug 17, 2017

Zandra Vranes speaks of her joy when she read a Church statement condemning "white supremacy" attitudes and behavior.


Jeremy Talmage and Clinton D. Christensen tell of knowing and unknowing priesthood ordinations of Church members with seeming African heritage.


Leonard J. Arrington reports Gil Warner's account of Boyd K. Packer's description of the experience of the 1978 priesthood revelation.


Historian Newell G. Bringhurst believes that William I. Appleby's "so-called journal" was written actually written in the mid 1850s.

May 17, 2018

Jonathan Streeter publishes fake apology purporting to be from President Russell M. Nelson apologizing for the priesthood ban.

May 17, 2018

First Presidency and NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) leaders issue a joint statement calling for "greater civility, racial and ethnic harmony and mutual respect."

Jun 1, 2018

Brady McCombs reports on varied opinions of Church members following the 2018 "Be One Celebration."

Jun 1, 2018

Dallin H. Oaks tells of his joy at the time of the priesthood revelation, concluding that "we all have cause for celebration."

Jun 1, 2018

Russell M. Nelson tells attendees of the "Be One" celebration that an appreciation of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man should inspire us "with a passionate desire to build bridges of cooperation instead of walls of segregation."

Jun 1, 2018

The Church News announces "Be One," a celebration marking the 40th anniversary of the 1978 revelation on the priesthood.

Jun 2, 2018

President Dallin H. Oaks acknowledges pain of past priesthood and temple restriction, his joy at its end, and his hope for the future.

Jun 11, 2018

Jana Riess reports the results of her 2016 study showing that the majority of Church members in the USA believed the priesthood and temple ban was God's will.

Oct 31, 2018

W. Paul Reeve and the Church partner to develop a database and website featuring biographical information about African-American Latter-day Saints.


Jane Manning James performs baptisms for the dead in 1888 and 1894.


Tonya Reiter describes how Samuel and Amanda Chambers arrange for a Norwegian temple worker to serve as proxies in baptisms for the dead for their friends and relatives.


Tonya S. Reiter describes register of white proxies and Black Saint requestors for baptisms for the dead.


In the the journal of David O. McKay, Clare Middlemiss summarizes discussion of First Presidency and the Twelve about how to proceed with decision-making and administration in light of President McKay's illness.


David O. McKay journal entries describe meetings with the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) that led to First Presidency civil rights statement in General Conference and the aftermath of the statement.


President David O. McKay reports that he gave Elder Ezra Taft Benson his consent to speak about civil rights at General Conference.


David O. McKay drops requirement for South Africans to trace their genealogy out of the country as a requirement to receive the priesthood.


The First Presidency and the Twelve meet to discuss challenges in taking the Gospel to Africa.


David O. McKay drops requirement for South Africans to trace their genealogy out of the country as a requirement to receive the priesthood.


President David O. McKay reports that a statement by Hugh B. Brown on the priesthood ban "caused quite a bit of controversy."


David O. McKay recalls Heber J. Grant turning down request for an exception to the priesthood ban in 1921.


Harvard S. Heath publishes transcription of David O. McKay's office diaries summarizing a report of apostles who found 1,067 errors in "Mormon Doctrine."

Apr 2019

James Jones and Derek Knox begin hosting a podcast celebrating diversity in Latter-day Saint culture.

Aug 5, 2019

Church historian Snow comments on writing of race/priesthood essay.


Jane Elizabeth Manning James performs baptisms for family members in the Logan and Salt Lake temples.


Jane Elizabeth Manning James performs baptisms for family members in the Logan and Salt Lake temples.

Jan 2020

Historian Osman Murzik Kono summarizes the Nigerian Civil War against Biafra.

Jan 31, 2020

E. R. Shipp describes efforts of FamilySearch in behalf of African American genealogy research.

Jun 1, 2020

Russell M. Nelson denounces racism and calls for respect of human dignity.

Oct 3, 2020

Brady McCombs reports Matt Martinich as saying that "members of African descent account for at least 8% of Latter-day Saints globally while African-Americans likely make up 3-5% of U.S. members."

Oct 3, 2020

Elder Dallin H. Oaks denounces racism and encourages the Saints to love their enemies.

Oct 27, 2020

President Dallin H. Oaks denounces racism and encourages peaceful resolution of conflicts.

Nov 3, 2020

Peggy Fletcher Stack reports comments of Black Latter-day Saints following President Dallin H. Oaks' mention that "Black Lives Matter."

Nov 17, 2020

Tad Walch reports joint effort of Black 14 Philanthropy and the Church to overcome past enmity and provide goods to food banks.

Nov 19, 2020

Jana Riess reports Adam Harris's and Carlene Fraser-Harris's statements about how President Oaks's BYU devotional address on racism fell short.

Feb 25, 2021

BYU Report on Race, Equity, and Belonging describes race problems on campus and makes recommendations to fix these.

Feb 27, 2021

Courtney Tanner announces the BYU report on campus racism in The Salt Lake Tribune.

May 1, 2021

Rachel Sterzer Gibson reports on birthplaces of General Authorities.

Jun 1, 2021

"An act concerning Servants and Slaves” (1705) lays out Virginia colony slave codes.

Jun 14, 2021

First Presidency and NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) leaders announce joint educational and humanitarian initiatives.

Aug 23, 2021

BYU outlines a mission statement for the new Office of Belonging.

Oct 23, 2021

Jon Ryan Jensen reports the fiftieth anniversary celebration of the Genesis Group.

Nov 8, 2021

David Schneider reports that Brazil accounted for 8.6% and Africa for 4.0% of Church membership respectively in 2019.


Ronald V. Huggins summarize Jerald and Sandra Tanner's efforts to discredit the priesthood ban and the priesthood revelation.


Webster's 1828 dictionary provides definitions for servitude.


Merriam-Webster provides a definition of miscegenation.


Webster's 1828 dictionary defines slavery.


Webster's 1828 dictionary provides a definition of slave.


Webster's 1828 dictionary provides a definition for "servant."


Amy Tanner Thiriot describes the tithings and consecration documents of Latter-day Saint slave owners.


Historian Amy Tanner Thiriot summarizes how Green Flake became enslaved to Brigham Young.


Amy Tanner Thiriot provides an extensive documentary and genealogical history of slavery in Utah.


Amy Thiriot's biography of Martha Morris.

Jan 11, 2022

The United States Supreme Court rules that the doctrine of "separate but equal" in public education has no place, since segregated schools are "inherently unequal."

Feb 7, 2022

General Young Men counselor Bradley R. Wilcox apologizes for an offensive comment on race.

Feb 8, 2022

BYU professor and Church leader Bradley R. Wilcox makes an offensive remark about the priesthood and temple restriction.

Feb 14, 2022

Bradley R. Wilcox apologizes a second time for "insensitive and hurtful" comments about race.

Apr 22, 2022

Members of Black Menaces group gain national attention for TikTok videos intended to hold BYU students and the university accountable for racism.

Apr 23, 2022

Slate reports on the Black Menaces, "TikTok's favorite new provacateurs."

May 12, 2022

David Schneider reports rapid growth of the Church in Africa and Brazil from 2011–2021.

Jul 22, 2022

Scott Taylor of the Church News reports on the dedication of the African American Pioneer monument.

Jul 23, 2022

Peggy Fletcher Stack writes Tribune article celebrating the dedication of the African American Pioneer monument.

Aug 12, 2022

W. Paul Reeve says that Century of Black Mormons database now contains 125 biographies.

Aug 22, 2022

Nigeria has over 200,000 Church members, the greatest number of an African country.

Aug 28, 2022

Duke University volleyball player Rachel Richardson accuses BYU fans of shouting racial slurs during a match.

Aug 28, 2022

Victoria J. Arancio, reporter for Good Morning America, reports that Rachel Richardson was allegedly the target of racial slurs during a BYU volleyball game.

Aug 28, 2022

BYU women's volleyball coach Heather Olmstead makes a statement against racism after a conversation with Duke player Rachel Richardson.

Aug 30, 2022

Sara Weissman reports efforts of Black Menaces to spread their movement at campuses across the country.

Aug 30, 2022

Victoria Hill of KUTV summarizes ESPN interview of Duke volleyball player Rachel Richardson about her report of racial slurs at a match with BYU.

Aug 31, 2022

BYU police report details what happened during BYU-Duke volleyball match.

Sep 1, 2022

BYU Athletic Director Tom Holmoe describes his conversation with Rachel Richardson and speaks out against racism.

Sep 5, 2022

Wayne Sterling of CNN reports that South Carolina basketball team cancels BYU games due to Rachel Richardson's accusations of racial slurs.

Sep 6, 2022

Deseret News writer Doug Robinson details media chronicle of the BYU-Duke volleyball incident involving Rachel Richardson.

Sep 8, 2022

Fox News reporter Joseph A. Wulfsohn reports initial media attention for incident involving Rachel Richardson, but loss of interest when evidence began to weaken claims.

Sep 9, 2022

Tad Walch of the Deseret News reports results of BYU investigation of Rachel Richardson incident, finding no evidence of racial slurs.

Sep 9, 2022

Jon McBride of BYU Athletics reports the results of an investigation of the incident of claimed racial slurs at a game involving Rachel Richardson.

Sep 9, 2022

Duke University VP and athletic director Nina King stands with player Rachel Richardson and the rest of the team following report of BYU investigation.

Sep 9, 2022

Dallas Woodhouse of The Carolina Journal tells Duke University to acknowledge that there is no evidence that the events reported by Rachel Richardson occurred.

Sep 20, 2022

Library of Congress gives description of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago and the United States' territorial gains.

Oct 14, 2022

New York Times columnist John McWhorter discounts the story of Rachel Richardson and argues that "not all claims of racist abuse hold water."

Oct 22, 2022

Palak Jayswal of The Salt Lake Tribune reports on walkout for BYU LGBTQ students organized in part by The Black Menaces.

Oct 27, 2022

Rodric Anthony Johnson mentions the 2018 Church "Be One Celebration" and mentions that the Church has not made an apology.


Historian W. Paul Reeve states that the priesthood restriction was not inspired and was a mistake.


Four prominent Black church leaders describe their personal stories and understandings of events and teachings relating to the priesthood and temple ban that have brought them peace.


President Thomas S. Monson recounts the events of the 1978 revelation on the priesthood to Elder Edward Dube.


Elder L. Tom Perry recounts his impressions of the 1978 priesthood revelation to Elder Ahmad S. Corbitt.


Church History Topic on slavery and abolition describes historical LDS attitudes towards slavery.


Seth Richardson describes Mesopotamian slavery.


Strong's Greek Concordance provides a definition for "δουλεύω".


Zev Farber describes slavery in the Old Testament.


Church History Topic essay provides overview of the Mormon-Missouri War of 1838.


Strong's Greek Concordance defines δοῦλος (including a list of references from the NT).


Church History Topic essay gives brief history of Indian slavery in Utah.


Missouri Digital Archive provides explanation of the Missouri Mormon War.


Definition of οἰκέτης in Strong's Concordance.


Century of Black Mormons project provides biographical sketch of Martha Ann Morris.


Joseph Smith prophesies that violence will begin in South Carolina related to the slave question.


Library of Congress website provides timeline of the American Civil War.


Comparison of draft final versions of "An Act in Relation to Service."


Historian Noel Lenski describes Roman slavery.


Elder Ahmad S. Corbitt gives his perspective on the priesthood ban.

Feb 13, 2023

The Church Newsroom reports that there are 18 temples announced or built in Brazil.

Feb 17, 2023

BYU Multicultural Student Services organizes a program of music, dance, and poetry celebrating a diversity of cultures.

May 8, 2023

FamilySearch publishes an index to their holdings of online African American online genealogy records.

Sep 25, 2023

Temples of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints website maps a score of temple sites in Africa.