Heavenly Mother

228 Primary Sources

Feb 14, 1842

Earliest known reference to "spirit birth" in a letter from LS to EW in February 1842.

Feb 1844

WWP writes in a poem written before Joseph Smith's death about a "queen of heaven."

Apr 7, 1844

JS describes Gen. 1:1 as referring to "gods."

Apr 7, 1844

JS discusses Gen. 1:1 as referring to plural deity.

Dec 25, 1844

WWP writes, "thy mother is the Queen of heaven" with God (the father).

Dec 31, 1844

BY recorded as teaching we have a Queen/HM at the Dedication of the Seventies Hall in Nauvoo.

Jan 15, 1845

First specific usage of "mother" in reference to a mother in heaven.

May 1, 1845

WWP references both a father and mother in heaven.

Nov 15, 1845

ERS publishes what would become the hymn "O My Father."

Jun 15, 1846

DCK describes how we will be reunited with heavenly parents.

May 2, 1847

ERS writes prayer and supplication to be offered to an enthroned eternal mother.


WWP extrapolating an "Eternal Mother" based on Job 11:7.

Jul 1853

OP mentions the "womb of the celestial female" who birthed our spirits.

Oct 1853

OP affirms a plurality of HMs.

Nov 1853

OP affirms a plurality of HMs.


JL's poem alludes to a mother in heaven.


W. W. Phelps, in a poem on eternal progression, mentions sitting on knee of HM in preexistence.


Adam (God per "Adam-God") brought one of his wives into Eden with him (Eve).

Jul 18, 1854

Extract WGM's 1854 poem mentioning "spirits born of Parents great."


WWP writes a poem about being raised, in premortality, by a (heavenly) mother.

Jun 20, 1855

TB mentions how BY's favorite hymn was "O my Father."


PPP teaches God has a wife.

Jun 22, 1856

BY teaches we were created in the image of a HF and HM.

Jan 28, 1857

W. W. Phelps poem that speaks of God's "madam."

Jul 22, 1857

In a poem, JW (then president of the Swiss mission) writes we sung praises to Heavenly Parents while we lived with them in the pre-existence.

Aug 1, 1857

JW (then president of the Swiss mission) explicitly teaches belief in HM in a poem.

Aug 29, 1857

JT teaches of a Heavenly Mother who is "one of the queens of heaven."

Aug 29, 1857

JT mentions us leaving HF and HM in pre-existence.

Oct 9, 1859

BY suggests that A and E are our heavenly/spirit parents (Adam-God).

Feb 23, 1862

Brigham Young shares Heber C. Kimball's recollection of Joseph Smith affirming a Father in Heaven, then adds that it necessitates a mother.

Aug 20, 1871

OP teaches that Heavenly Father begat spirit children, indicating belief in HM.

Jun 27, 1875

WW teaches our premortal spirits dwelt with a Mother, not just a Father, in heaven.

Oct 8, 1876

BY teaches that our spirits were the result of celestial bodies (plural).

Nov 12, 1876

OP, in discussing "eternal progression," makes reference to our having Heavenly Parents.


ET writes that ERS told him that the Church believes in a Heavenly Mother who is co-creator with God the Father (with an "Adam-God" understanding).

Dec 31, 1877

ERS writes poem about HM.

Mar 3, 1878

ES affirms the Church's belief in a divine feminine.

Mar 3, 1878

ES teaches that the Godhead consists of male and female "parts."

Jul 1, 1879

At the 80th birthday of a popular figure, Bishop EH, SAK teaches when we die, we will meet both our Father and Mother God.

Nov 13, 1879

OP mentions "Heavenly Parents" during church service.


EBS references a heavenly Mother in a poem.


JHJ writes a hymn on pre-existence that mentions heavenly parents.


JHJ writes a hymn for Church youth affirming belief in a HM.


JHJ writes a hymn for Church youth affirming belief in a HM.

Oct 11, 1883

Zebedee Coltrin recalls an account of Joseph Smith seeing Father Adam and Mother Eve in a vision.

Apr 15, 1884

GQC affirms a Mother in Heaven.

Oct 22, 1884

ES teaches that our having earthly parents necessitates our having Heavenly Parents.

Mar 2, 1885

OH recounts ZC's account of JS seeing A and E.

May 31, 1885

ES says it is reasonable to believe in MIH from Genesis 1:26-27 and Eliza Snow's "O My Father."

Jun 1885

OFW teaches that we have Heavenly Parents who, like us, were mortal and progressed, "from manhood and womanhood to Godhood."

Jan 22, 1889

Newspaper source reports on LDS theology; mentions God having a wife, a "female Deity."

Jul 22, 1889

GQC teaches that, in the hereafter, we will have our prior memories of HF and HM restored.


OFW teaches, in a poem, we have both a Father and Mother awaiting us in Heaven.

Aug 25, 1890

AHC records a retelling of ZC's account of JS seeing Heavenly Mother.

Jul 1891

SYG teaches HM molded the attributes of Abraham in the preexistence.

Mar 1, 1892

William C. Harrison, in a "Companion Poem to Eliza R. Snow's 'Invocation,'" writes of HM.

Mar 28, 1892

JET makes reference to our "Heavenly Parents."

Jul 1892

MET says we will have a joyous reunion with our Heavenly Parents in the hereafter.

Apr 9, 1894

Wilford Woodruff designates "O My Father" a "Revelation."

Feb 9, 1895

JFS teaches that MIH was revealed to the Church, not through ERS, but JS, and is a revealed doctrine of the Church.

May 15, 1895

George Q. Cannon says that Heavenly Mother is not to be worshipped like Heavenly Father; Joseph Smith did not reveal any "female element" in Godhead.

Jun 15, 1895

OFW teaches (1) we have a Mother in Heaven and (2) like God the Father, she also experienced a mortal probation.

Oct 11, 1898

LS teaches we are of the offspring of both a Heavenly Father and Mother.

Dec 31, 1899

Talmage maintains the necessity of a "heavenly mother"/ "heavenly parents."

Aug 15, 1900

LLGR writes poem about Heavenly Mother.

Jul 20, 1901

LS tells female members of the Church that they can become like HM.

Apr 28, 1902

JET comments on existence of HM.

Jun 26, 1902

CWP comments on women's role in marriage.

Jul 1902

JFS celebrates marriage as path to Heavenly Parents.


LLGR, for the Jubilee anniversary of the Relief Society, teaches we pre-existed with both a Heavenly Father and Mother.


LLGR says that, in the hereafter, we will be with our (Heavenly) Father and Mother.


LLGR says that, in the hereafter, we will be with our (Heavenly) Father and Mother.

Feb 4, 1905

Anonymous author proclaims LDS gospel an to be emancipator of women.

Sep 7, 1905

NA ruminates on existence of Mother in Heaven.

Jan 1906

SYG teaches the young women of the Church they preexisted with Heavenly Parents.

Jul 16, 1906

OFH comments on Heavenly Mother.

Jul 1907

JFS teaches we have Heavenly Parents.


JLT writes a hymn about HM.


BHR expresses belief in HM.

Jan 16, 1909

JET references HM.

Apr 1909

JGD refers accountability to HM.

Nov 1909

FP references Heavenly Mother.

Sep 29, 1910

RC references adoration of Eternal Mother and how she is the prototype of all women.


SYG teaches we had a premortal home with Heavenly Parents.


Susa Young Gates recalls a conversation from July 1839 where Joseph Smith taught about Heavenly Mother to Zina D. Young.


BHR uses idea of HM to celebrate gender equality.

May 1914

Poem published in Juvenile Instructor celebrates HM.

Oct 1914

JET highlights existence of HM.


OFH references Heavenly Mother in his popular Gospel Themes book.

Aug 24, 1915

JET imagines when humans become like HF and HM at General Conference.


JET references "God Mother."


JAW comments on deity sexuality.

Mar 16, 1916

DOM recounts ERS telling him that her poem "O My Father" was inspired by the teachings of Joseph Smith.

Apr 1916

OFW references "eternal Mother."

May 1916

OFW discusses HM with HF as being those who we return to after this life.

Aug 1916

FP and QTA refer to glorified parents.

Apr 1920

SYG uses Heavenly Mother as example of gender equality.


OFW references HM and how we are begotten children of HM and HF.

May 8, 1921

MJB comments on Heavenly Mother.

May 1922

Possible reference to a Mother in Heaven in JC's 1914 hymn.

Dec 1924

HGS states that HM exists.

Sep 1925

FP refers to "universal Father and Mother."

Jun 29, 1926

MJB acknowledges the role of Heavenly Mother.

Aug 1927

OFW holds that humans are made in HM's image.

May 10, 1928

JAW alludes to a Heavenly Mother.

May 7, 1932

GE references HM.


JHS says that HF and HM make it so that "Mormonism puts woman by the side of man in the scheme of salvation."


GFR says that HF and HM want us to love them.


MRH discusses HM.

Apr 5, 1948

MGR believes in HM.


MJB references HM.


MRH refers to HM.


JFS holds that female spirits resemble HM.

Aug 1957

JL imagines parting with HM before coming to this life.


MRB says HM's name not known because of irreverence.


Melvin R. Brooks commented on how the name of God is profaned, so the Church doesn't talk about Heavenly Mother.

Dec 1961

HBB maintains home/church/heaven are only complete with mother.

Oct 1962

JAW refers to "heavenly parents."

Feb 1964

HBL says that HM is more concerned than our earthly mother.


BRM comments on existence of Heavenly Mother.


MEP refers to Heavenly Parents sending us to earth "to receive further instruction."

Apr 2, 1972

HDT alludes to Heavenly Parents.


SWK tells women they are daughters of HM.

Jan 1974

EGS says we are spirit offspring of Father/Mother in Heaven.

Dec 1974

FP alludes to Heavenly Parents.

Jul 1977

RLS refers to Heavenly Parents in the July 1977 Ensign.

Apr 1978

SWK promises Heavenly Mother can influence us.

Apr 1978

NAM muses on HM's preparations for celestial return.

Sep 16, 1978

SWK tells women Mother in Heaven loves them.

Oct 1978

MRB comments on Heavenly Parents at October 1978 GC.


SWK says that the relationship between HM and HF is "a partnership."


SWK comments on Heavenly Parents in a book focused on women and the church.

Jun 1980

PHD celebrates heavenly parent support.

Jul 1980

NBS urges people to prove themselves worthy to be with Heavenly Parents.

Oct 20, 1981

LR shares story of defending HM doctrine, "I don’t see how in the world God could have a son without a wife."

Aug 7, 1982

ETB notes that we will return home to Heavenly Parents.


SWK speaks about the existence of HM.


SWK says women are made in the image of HM.

Sep 25, 1983

BS refers to Heavenly Parents.

Oct 2, 1983

RDH says Jesus had heavenly parents.


JRH muses on Heavenly Mother's involvement in mortal life.


PLA celebrates the plan to return with Heavenly Parents.


PLA's hymn affirms we will meet our "heavenly parents" in the hereafter.

Jun 3, 1986

TMB says Heavenly Parents want us to return.

Oct 1987

PTH celebrates HM as female role model.

Oct 1987

VJF says womanly traits come from Heavenly Mother.

Jan 17, 1989

PTH references Heavenly Mother.

Sep 24, 1989

ELJ says that women receive spiritual characteristics from heavenly parents.


RP summarizes the identity of Shekinah.


GBH chastises those who advocate for praying to HM.


KHS says we don't talk about Heavenly Mother because of how we would slander Her.


JTD celebrates reunion with Heavenly Parents.


Entry from manual on HF saying that we are literal children of God.


EAC writes an article on Mother in Heaven.

Jun 1993

TSM references heavenly parents.


Church includes hymn in French hymnal about Heavenly Parents.


MRB comments on how we all lived with HM and HF.


HWB says we know little of HM because God wants to protect her.


Janice Allred speculated about the connection between Heavenly Mother and the Holy Spirit.


CNO says Heavenly Parents accepted offering of Jesus.

Apr 1995

DHO says LDS theology starts with heavenly parents.


MRB teaches that all are the spirit children of HM and HF.

Sep 23, 1995

FP/Q12 say humans are sons/daughters of heavenly parents.

Oct 1995

DHO cites own lineage from Heavenly Parents.

Oct 1, 1995

RMN says humans are children of heavenly parents.

Oct 1995

CO says humans are children of heavenly parents.

Oct 6, 1996

RDH says theology starts with heavenly parents.


HBL speaks of humans as children of Heavenly Parents.


Catechism identifies M as our Heavenly Queen.


MS describes identity of Sophia.


JRH speaks of the opportunity to become like heavenly parents.


Gospel Principles describes how our heavenly parents want us to become like them.


CO speaks of humans as children of Heavenly Parents.

Dec 31, 1999

Susan Ackerman referenced Jeremiah verses when describing Asherah's cult.

Sep 2, 2000

Daniel C. Peterson theorizes that Asherah should be understood as a Mother goddess archetype.


MRB mentions Heavenly Parents.

Oct 6, 2002

DHO says we can return to live with heavenly parents.

Apr 4, 2004

JBB wishes women remembered heavenly parents and "potential for eternal motherhood."

Oct 1, 2005

DHO refers to heavenly parents theology.

Oct 1, 2005

JRH alludes to heavenly parents.

Apr 2006

JBB alludes to heavenly parents.

Apr 2, 2006

HBS says that we can be sealed to earthly families and then enter into the presence of HF and HM.

Apr 2009

BKP references heavenly parents.

Oct 3, 2009

DFU describes "spiritual heritage" of heavenly parents as a "vast capacity for love."

Feb 2010

DHO says our aspiration is to become like heavenly parents.

Mar 9, 2010

GLP tells BYU sisters that questions about "role of women . . . will evaporate" when they look into HM's eyes in heaven.


MC offers the possibility that elohim should be understood as a male and female god.


DLP and MP comment on documentation of Heavenly Mother.

Oct 1, 2011

WCW notes heavenly parents as being in the pre-mortal existence.

Mar 31, 2012

US urges members to rise to level of divinity of heavenly parents.

2013 - 2015

The Church writes a text verifying belief in Heavenly Parents.

2013 - 2015

COJCOLS publishes that saints taught their children of heavenly parents in Nauvoo.

2013 - 2015

COJCLDS issues commentary on the foundation of Heavenly Mother doctrine.

Apr 6, 2013

MRB refers to heavenly parents.

Apr 6, 2013

DAB references heavenly parents.

Apr 7, 2013

DHO teaches that we are heirs of HF and HM.

Apr 7, 2013

CG references heavenly parents.

Oct 2013

DHO identifies LDS theology as starting with heavenly parents.

Oct 6, 2013

RMN references heavenly parents.

Mar 28, 2015

LKB seeks assistance in learning to serve in complementary roles as children of heavenly parents.

Mar 28, 2015

CMS cites Proclamation re: heavenly parents during GC.

Apr 4, 2015

DTC references heavenly parents.

Sep 26, 2015

RW cites the TFAPTTW on heavenly parents.

Oct 1, 2015

LRL speaks of conversion because of heavenly parents doctrine.

Oct 3, 2015

JRH thanks HM for Her "crucial role in fulfilling the purposes of eternity."

Apr 2, 2016

GES references heavenly parents.

Apr 2, 2016

DLH cites The Family Proclamation in discussing Heavenly Parents.

Apr 2, 2016

MRB references heavenly parents.

Apr 2, 2016

NFM mentions "heavenly parents."

Apr 3, 2016

PVJ references heavenly parents.

Sep 24, 2016

CMS says women are daughters of heavenly parents.

Oct 1, 2016

DFU references Heavenly Parents.

Oct 2, 2016

MRB references heavenly parents.

Oct 2, 2016

RMN promises Christ makes it possible to return to live with "Heavenly Parents."

Oct 2, 2016

RAR says that a "foremost" truth is the existence of HF and HM.

Mar 25, 2017

LKB testifies of loving heavenly parents.

Apr 1, 2017

MRB refers to heavenly parents' perfect love.

Apr 1, 2017

HBE refers to heavenly parents.

Sep 23, 2017

JDJ quotes SWK about HM.

Sep 30, 2017

DFU speaks of longing to embrace Heavenly Parents.

Sep 30, 2017

DFU tells women that they are daughters of Heavenly Parents.

Sep 30, 2017

JRH references Heavenly Parents.

Mar 31, 2018

BKT references heavenly parents.

Mar 31, 2018

LGR celebrates attributes of Heavenly Parents.

Apr 1, 2018

RIA says we are on a journey back to Heavenly Parents.

Apr 6, 2019

NLA quotes Proclamation about heavenly parents.

Apr 7, 2019

RMN speaks of returning to Heavenly Parents.

May 8, 2021

Peggy Fletcher Stack reported that Fiona Givens addressed speculation about whether or not Heavenly Mother is the Holy Ghost at a fireside.