Temple Garments

221 Primary Sources

800 BC - 600 BC

God gives coats of skins to Adam and Eve.

1400 - 1450

A poem by an unknown author on the craft of masonry uses "so mote it be."

Mar 24, 1831

The Ohio Star quotes Geauga Gazette when they say the Mormon Bible is anti-Masonic and its followers are anti-Masons.


John Quincy Adams recorded the Masonic oath.

Oct 1, 1835

Oliver Cowdery described how Joseph, Oliver, and W.W. Phelps worked on the Egytpian alphabet and unfolded a system of astronomy.

Dec 29, 1835

Joseph used language associated with Masonry in his journal.

Apr 3, 1836

Joseph and Oliver Cowdery receive keys and a vision of Moses, Elias, and Elijah in April 1836.


Joseph Smith says that "it was not intended to tell the world all the particulars of the coming forth of the Book of Mormon."

Jun 18, 1840

Joseph expressed plans to dedicate himself to translation between 1835 and 1842.

May 1841

Joseph referenced Abraham's record post-1835 and pre-1842.

Sep 1, 1841

Joseph commented on how he wishes to be translating Egyptian documents more pre-1842.

Oct 15, 1841

John C. Bennett provides copy of dispensation by Abraham Jonas authorizing establishment of the Nauvoo Masonic Lodge.

Nov 22, 1841

Joseph Fielding identifies Freemasonry as a stepping stone to higher understanding of priesthood.

Dec 30, 1841

William Clayton recorded the minutes of the December 30, 1841 Nauvoo Masonic Lodge meeting.

Dec 30, 1841

John C. Bennett's minutes record that Hyrum was previously made a Freemason in Palmyra.

Jan 1842 - Mar 1842

Joseph offers temple-related explanations of Egyptian characters in his explanation of facsimile 2.

Jan 6, 1842

Joseph Smith records jubilation about the prospects for the restoration of the "ancient order" within the Nauvoo Temple.

Mar 1, 1842

Times and Seasons publishes a facsimile from the Book of Abraham.

Mar 15, 1842

Abraham Jonas writes letter providing dispensation for Joseph's initiation into Freemasonry.

Mar 15, 1842

Times and Seasons publishes temple-related explanations of hieroglyphics.

Mar 15, 1842

WC records AJ dispensation for Joseph's initiation in secondary copy of Nauvoo Masonic Lodge minutes.

Mar 15, 1842

Willard Richards scribes for Joseph's journal where Joseph indicates that he was admitted to the Masonic lodge.

Mar 15, 1842

JCB records AJ dispensation for Joseph's initiation in earliest version of Nauvoo Masonic Lodge minutes.

Mar 17, 1842

Eliza R. Snow copies contents of a scrap of paper in an unknown hand found prior to a Relief Society meeting and containing Masonic language.

Mar 31, 1842

Joseph urges women to follow Masonry in keeping a secret in a letter to Emma Smith.

Mar 31, 1842

Joseph Smith advises the Relief Society to "grow up by degrees" by examining each candidate for membership carefully.

Mar 31, 1842

In an epistle to the Relief Society, Joseph Smith cites Masonry as an organization whose members know how to keep secrets.

Mar 31, 1842

Eliza Snow records Joseph using Masonic language to describe the Relief Society's progress.

Apr 1, 1842

W.W. Phelps highlights importance of knowledge of natural laws in Times and Seasons.

Apr 28, 1842

Joseph Smith stressed the need for individuals to stand in their appointed places to sanctify the Society, emphasizing the imminent bestowal of the keys of the kingdom and urging resistance to evil.

May 4, 1842

Willard Richards summarizes details of the first endowment ceremony in Joseph's manuscript history of the Church.

Jun 17, 1842

Heber C. Kimball writes to Parley P. Pratt that "there is a similarity of priesthood in Masonry."

Jul 2, 1842

John C. Bennett charges Joseph Smith with "the actual seduction of several Master Masons' wives, sisters, and daughters."

Jul 7, 1842

WC records JCB being expelled from the Masonic Lodge.

Jul 30, 1842

The Nauvoo Lodge Minutes Book records Abraham Jonas' description of his reasons for placing an injunction against the Nauvoo Lodge, and how it might be remedied.

Aug 8, 1842

Robinson describes what might be temple garments.

Sep 7, 1842

Joseph records an appearance of the archangel Michael on the banks of the Susquehanna river "detecting the devil" who appeared as an angel of light.

Nov 2, 1842

The Nauvoo Masonic Lodge minutes reports that Illinois Grand Master Meredith Helm lifted the injunction against the Nauvoo lodge.

Jun 11, 1843

Joseph maintains that ordinances of salvation, "instituted in the heavens before the foundation of the World," should not be altered.

Oct 15, 1843

JS uses Mason language to tell fellow leaders to "keep a secret."

Jun 16, 1844

Joseph Smith gives an entire sermon on the temple-related doctrinal implications of Revelation 1:6: "and hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father."

Jul 15, 1844

Times and Seasons comments on Joseph and Hyrum Smith as Masonic status.

Dec 16, 1845

William Clayton comments on early production of garments.

Dec 16, 1845

William Clayton comments on early production of garments.

Dec 21, 1845

William Clayton records Heber C. Kimball alluding to garment description.

Dec 21, 1845

Miller claims that the marks the Apostle Paul referenced are the marks on the temple garments.

Dec 21, 1845

William Clayton records George Miller speaking of garment providing protection.

Dec 21, 1845

William Clayton records conversation about Joseph and Hyrum not wearing their garments at Carthage.

Dec 21, 1845

Heber C. Kimball refers to Willard Richards being not shot at Carthage because of garments.

Jan 13, 1846

Brigham wants to stop production of garments.


Benjamin G. Ferris provides description of garments.

Dec 31, 1856

Official martyrdom account highlighting protection for Richards through garment.


Church critic John Hyde ridicules Church's use of Freemasonry.


Mary Ettie V. Smith maintains that Mormonism has no relationship with Masonry.

Feb 17, 1858

FamilySearch documents Berry as being endowed.

Nov 13, 1858

Heber C. Kimball attributes Freemasonry to Solomon and David and Church possesses true Masonry.


Richard Burton traces Mormonism to freemasonry.


Heber C. Kimball discusses the Church's persecutions in 1861, highlights their resilience, mentions ties to Freemasonry, and predicts retribution for their oppressors.

Feb 9, 1862

Kimball said Jesus, apostles wore garments.

Oct 7, 1866

Brigham Young is reported as saying that Joseph Smith said "thousands of things" in "secret councils" that "the people have not yet heard."


George A. Smith said that Frederick Williams saw Jesus dressed "in his vesture without seam" at the dedication of the Kirtland temple.

Feb 10, 1867

Brigham roots Freemasonry in Solomon's Temple.

Feb 10, 1867

Brigham attributes endowment to Solomon's Temple.

May 23, 1870

FamilySearch identifies John Henry Biggs as endowed at the time of his death.

Sep 3, 1870

CP condemns Mormonism for using Masonic symbols.


T. B. H. Stenhouse notes that Church leaders saw Freemasonry as degenerate version of priesthood.

Nov 17, 1873

JT describes temple attire at burial.


Ann Eliza Young quotes Brigham as describing the endowment as "Celestial Masonry."

Feb 7, 1877

BY describes first endowment, use of garments.


Young denies Masonry has any relationship with the Endowment House.

Jan 6, 1879

John Taylor comments on spiritual power of garments.

Mar 15, 1881

Helen Mar Kimball Whitney records the life of Heber C. Kimball, who discusses his involvement with Freemasonry.


Heber C. Kimball said that Jesus wore garments like Joseph Smith did.

Jan 2, 1884

Lucius N. Scovil recalls endowment in Nauvoo.

Apr 9, 1884

Abraham H. Cannon offers description of appropriate temple garments.


William Wyl notes that JS saw Freemasonry as holding the "key" of his endowment.

Mar 15, 1886

JI identifies Christ as the "chief and master Mason."

Jul 17, 1889

Sarah G. Richards comments on description of garments being shibboleth.

Mar 30, 1891

John D.T. McAllister asks about garment style; George Q. Cannon describes proposed garment style.


The Bodley Lodge wrote letters complaining of irregularities in the initiation of Joseph Smith by Abraham Jonas.


Johnson remembers Joseph speaking on the origin of temple garments.

Apr 26, 1895

Brother Earl describes his garments.

Apr 4, 1899

Rudger Clawson cites Franklin D. Richards as saying that Joseph Smith sought to know missing keys of Masonry.


Benjamin Franklin LeBaron says his mother said Joseph presented the garments to the Church.

Nov 17, 1900

Joseph F. Smith condemns "secret organizations."


Oliver B. Huntington provides account of garments at martyrdom.

Apr 21, 1902

Woodward recalls temple clothing and garments used in the time of Joseph Smith in Nauvoo.

May 12, 1903

David H. Cannon reports on standards for garments.

Aug 31, 1904

David H. Cannon comments on acceptable design of garments.

Dec 13, 1904

WT includes photo of man in garments, says Mormons "Never Wholly" remove it.


Eliza Munson records James Allred's stated that Joseph Smith gave specific instructions on how the garments were to be cut.

Sep 14, 1905

Anonymous observer has conversation with Marian Ronsail on description of garments.

Dec 31, 1906

Joseph F. Smith describes garments as unchanged.

Dec 1907

Louis Bertrand, a former Mason, rejects relationship between Masonic lodge and Endowment.

Nov 12, 1908

1908 RR newspaper advertisement for temple garments.

Jun 15, 1910

SLHR reports on establishment of BCH.

Dec 31, 1912

First Presidency offers instructions on making of endowment.

Mar 10, 1915

FP comments on timing of original temple garment design.

May 21, 1915

Mary E. Hanks writes poem dealing with garments.

Oct 8, 1916

Walter P. Monson associates garments with service, warning, and work.

1917 - 1936

Horace H. Cummings notes that his grandfather, James Cummings, claimed Joseph Smith had a deeper understanding of Masonic ceremonies than many Masons.

Jun 1, 1917

Advertisement re: temple garments.

Dec 14, 1918

Church critic LLS describes what garments look like and call them "the secret garment."

Aug 1921

Elder B. H. Roberts addresses Joseph Smith's Masonic connection, stating that the endowment ceremonies originated from divine revelations and predated his Masonic affiliations.

Aug 1921

B. H. Roberts maintains Joseph's endowment rooted in Abraham.

Oct 12, 1921

George F. Richards comments on physical power of garments.

Nov 30, 1921

Improvement Era offers advertisement for Temple Garment production.

Jun 4, 1923

Salt Lake Telegram reports on temple garment changes by Heber J. Grant.

Jun 4, 1923

Salt Lake Tribune's announcement of temple garment changes.

Jun 22, 1923

Duchesne Courier reports on how youth respond to temple garment use and design.

Dec 31, 1923

Reed Rasband asks whether he should wear old or new style garments.


Samuel H. Goodwin discusses the relationship between the Mormon Church and Freemasonry, highlighting historical attitudes, clandestine practices, theological differences, and prohibitions on membership.

Dec 2, 1924

HGR tells RR that he may choose which garments to wear.


The Grand Masonic Lodge of Utah discusses and adopts a resolution stating that members of the Mormon Church are not eligible for Masonic membership due to incompatible teachings and regulations.

Aug 1929

Horace C. Cummings maintains that his grandparents conducted JS through masonry for the first time.


John A. Widstoe asserted that the Church did not take anything from the Masons.


Anthony Ivins comments on lack of need for Freemasons.


Anthony W. Ivins emphasizes the Church's stance against its members affiliating with secret, oath-bound societies like Freemasonry, advocating loyalty to both the Church and the government.


Anthony Ivins dismisses claims of antique roots for Freemasonry.

Mar 25, 1938

First Presidency offers comments on proper design of garments.

Jul 20, 1938

First Presidency comments on the proper design of garments.

Oct 14, 1938

Bingham Bulletin carries advertisement for garments.


E. Cecil McGavin recognizes similarities between Latter-day Saints and Masons but suggests that the temple ceremony inspiration goes beyond Masonry.

May 31, 1950

Te Karere provides account of Sister Akiano.


Chiniwalla describes the sacred clothing including underclothing of Zoroastrians.

Nov 4, 1955

First Presidency requests proper markings be placed on approved articles of underwear due to difficulty importing garments to Europe.


Wilson K. Andersen prints William E. Berrett's statement saying protection comes from God, not garments.

Mar 1962

Samuel Sandmel details the term "parallelomania" to describe comparative studies that try to assert claims of borrowing solely on the basis of lists of similarities between two texts.

Feb 24, 1965

JZ reports that GH has a old LDS temple garments for sale.


Church president Lorenzo Snow and his counselor Joseph F. Smith strongly counsels members not to become members of secret organizations.


The Church condemns "oath-bound" organizations.


Reed C. Durham assures readers that he believes temple endowment inspired, in spite of Masonic influence.

Apr 20, 1974

Reed C. Durham argues that Freemasonry deeply influenced Joseph's life.

Oct 3, 1975

Temple Clothing Program offers instructions re: when garments are no longer useful.

Mar 1977

In New Era, Barbra Smith comments on who has rights to distribute garments.


Mervin B. Hogan discusses the Masonic Latter-day Saint exclusion policy, advocating its termination and noting Goodwin's strong anti-Mormon stance.


Mervin B. Hogan discusses tensions between Utah Masonry and the Mormon Church, noting Utah Masonry's anti-Mormon stance and shared prominent figures.


Hogan examines the relationship between Masonry and early Utah Mormonism, noting Brigham Young's efforts to limit Masonic influence and his attribution of Joseph and Hyrum Smith's deaths to Masonic actions.


Mervin B. Hogan documents the deliberations and resolutions within the Utah Masonic community regarding the exclusion of members from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Jan 1980 - Feb 1980

Sunstone announces temple garment change to two-piece.


Joseph Smith asserts that he did not build upon another's foundation, but on his own independent revelation and truth, confident in God's support.


Stanley B. Kimball notes that contemporary Masons never accused Joseph Smith of stealing Masonic secrets.

Nov 11, 1981

RP offers physical description of current temple garments.


The Jurisprudence Committee of the Grand Lodge of Utah recommended removing a 1925 resolution that banned LDS Church members from becoming Freemasons.

May 1985

Allen D. Roberts offers summary of use of Masonic symbols in Church iconography.

Sep 18, 1985

USDC offers summary of past non-LDS garment manufacturers.


Armand L. Mauss maintains that the endowment developed out of a Masonic cultural context, concludes it is not a "big issue."

Oct 10, 1988

First Presidency offers advice urging for members to wear garments more often than not.

Feb 17, 1992

Church spokesperson Don Lefevre says that there is no "prohibition against Masonry," but the church "discourages its members from joining."


Attilio G. Parisi summarizes the presence of freemasonry in Utah.


Lavinia Cohn-Sherbok and Dan Cohn-Sherbok define a Tallit Katan as a sacred undergarment for Orthodox Jews.


Robert T. Francoeur records joke about garments as "Mormon contraceptives."


Dan Vogel summarizes evidence relating to Smith family involvement in Freemasonry in New York.


BKP speaks of moral significance of garments.


Glen M. Leonard expresses the view that Joseph Smith "would have understood that Freemasonry held values cherished by religious persons of every faith."


The Jewish Encyclopedia defines sheitel as a type of headcovering that Jewish women may wear.


Devery Anderson and Gary J. Bergera offer estimate total number of Nauvoo Temple Endowments at 5,583.


Richard L. Bushman mentions "if Joseph thought of Freemasonry as degenerate priesthood, he did nothing to suppress his rival."

Mar 30, 2005

The Sikhi Wiki describes how Sikhs wear sacred underclothing to control their sexual desires.

Feb 2007

Ensign article explaining why there are symbols in the temple.

Mar 6, 2007

Jana describes why she stopped wearing garments including finding them uncomfortable.


Glen A. Cook, a Freemason and Brigham Young University Law School graduate, served as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Utah.

Mar 29, 2008

Glen A. Cook is the first Grand Master of the Utah Grand Lodge in nearly a century who is a Latter-day Saint.


Matthew B. Brown compiles a list of elements in the rites of Freemasonry that have no connection to temple ordinances.


The 2010 edition of the Church handbook states "Endowed members should wear the temple garment both day and night."


Boyd K. Packer states that temple ordinances are "kept confidential."


Devery Anderson transcribes account of the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve Apostles report containing symbolism and significance of the marks on temple garments.


Patrick Q. Mason offers description massacre at Cane Creek, with missionaries wearing garments.


The Church released their guidelines on dress and appearance in the For Strength of Youth.


Austin E. Fife and Alta Stephens Fife record folklore about protective value of garments.

Jan 25, 2012

Coppins answers questions that people may have about garments because of Romney's election.

Sep 24, 2012

Cartoonist makes fun of Romney and his garments.


Joseph Smith speaks of the order of the Son of God in the Doctrine and Covenants.


Introvigne explores the complex and evolving relationship between Mormonism and Freemasonry, emphasizing Joseph Smith's influence and the subsequent tensions and adaptations in rituals and beliefs.

Oct 19, 2014

CN releases article explaining garments.

Feb 9, 2015

The Catholic diocese of Denver explains the types of habits nuns wear.


Kerry Muhlestein and Megan Hansen give proposed reconstruction of translation timeline of the Book of Abraham.


John Gee proposes reconstruction of the timeline of the translation of the Book of Abraham.


Seaich observes that Joseph Smith incorporated only one two-hundredth of the content from the comprehensive manual, Monitor of Freemasonry.


The Encyclopedia Britannica describes how religions have different clothes.

Mar 14, 2018

Jana Riess praises updated temple garments for women.

Apr 9, 2018

The Church announces new garment styles and fabrics for men and women.

Oct 2018

Russell M. Nelson comments on temple rites being of ancient origin.

Oct 18, 2018

New World Encyclopedia defines a cassock as an outer robe that monks wear.

Dec 18, 2018

The Church releases video explaining garments.


The Church says garments "will serve as a protection against temptation and evil."

Jan 18, 2019

O'Brien describes the different components to Buddhist robes.

Feb 11, 2019

Diane Evans replied to a Quora post saying she finds garments comfortable.

Feb 19, 2019

The Church announces expansion of the stretch cotton garment line.

Mar 3, 2019

Mamie expresses that temple garments make her feel uncomfortable.

Aug 6, 2019

Weglarz says that Latter-day Saints wear garments during sex.

Oct 6, 2019

"Wearing the Garment" Statement from Temple Recommend Questions.

Jan 2020

Church Newsroom provides the updated 2020 temple recommend interview questions.


The Church publishes the list of covenants that are made in the temple.


Bradshaw, Larsen, and Whitlock discuss the challenges of comparative research, stressing the need for careful analysis and caution against excessive claims, especially in their study of Moses 1 and its ancient connections.


The Joseph Smith Papers editors reconstruct a timeline of the translation of the Book of Abraham.


The Utah Grand Lodge provides a biography of Glen A. Cook, the first Latter-day Saint Grand Master of the Utah Grand Lodge.

May 8, 2021

LDS-Mormon blog published the Temple Recommend Questions from 1991 – 1995.

May 21, 2021

Scott Taylor provides account of missionaries, who were almost certainly wearing garments, dying.

Jul 21, 2021

Sasha Piton urges the Church to provide more comfortable garments.

Dec 3, 2021

Merriam-Webster indicates that nuns wear habits.

Dec 3, 2021

Merriam-Webster defines cassock as a garment worn by Catholic and Anglican priests and laypersons.

Dec 3, 2021

New World Encyclopedia defines what a yarmulke is.

Dec 3, 2021

Merriam-Webster defines "sheitel" as a head covering for Orthodox Jewish women.


Jeffrey Bradshaw quotes Freemason Jacob Strong who said that the square and compass are presented differently in the Endowment.


The Church publishes a list of temple garment fabrics.


In the latest handbook, the Church stated that wearing the garment will serve as a protection.


The Church said that garments will serve as a protection if properly worn.


Jeffrey M. Bradshaw concludes that Latter-day Saint temple ordinances are more closely related to biblical and ancient sources than to Freemasonry.


Richard E. Turley, Jr. advises that researchers "should look for the differences between the endowment and Masonic rituals if they want to find the essence of what the Lord revealed to Joseph."


Jeffrey M. Bradshaw concludes that ritual gestures and language patterns are among the most important shared elements between Freemasonry and the temple.


Jeffrey M. Bradshaw cites Richard E. Turley, Jr. about some things being "adopted and adopted" from Freemasonry and the importance of looking at the differences "to see what the Lord revealed to Joseph."


Jeffrey M. Bradshaw notes that ancient rituals signifying divine status, initially exclusive to kings, were later extended to all members in some Jewish and Christian traditions.


Jeffrey M. Bradshaw interprets Joseph Smith's temple teachings as emphasizing the spiritual significance of ritual gestures, akin to ancient beliefs depicted in artworks like Hans Memling's "Gates of Paradise."

Aug 2, 2022

Jeffrey Bradshaw described the square and compass as ancient symbols while acknowledging that Masonry also has these symbols.

Aug 8, 2022

Church issues statements on Military/ Colored Garments.

Oct 2022

The Church said that the Lord's modesty standard to honor the sacredness of your body.

Nov 17, 2022

Utah Area Presidency issues statement on "casual and inconsistent wearing of the temple garment" during an Area Broadcast.


Zebedee Coltrin recalled seeing Jesus wearing "white garments" in the Kirtland temple.

Jan 23, 2023

The Church publishes a general article on Masonry, including a description possible motivations for Joseph Smith's embrace of Masonry in Nauvoo.

Oct 24, 2023

In a video, the Church discusses the historical connections between Joseph Smith and Freemasonry, highlighting similarities and differences between Masonic rituals and Latter-day Saint temple ceremonies.

Oct 24, 2023

The Church website offers various resources on the relationship between Freemasonry and its teachings, including scriptures, teachings from Church leaders, historical documents, and third-party analyses.