Book of Abraham Translation

323 Primary Sources

238 BC - 153 BC

Original lion couch vignette on P. Joseph Smith I (Facsimile 1) from the fragment of Book of Breathing for Horos.

Mar 25, 1835

Anonymous source published in the Cleveland Whig describes papyri before Joseph acquired them.

Mar 26, 1835

CDA reports MC selling papyri and mummies in Ohio before Joseph Smith acquires them.

Mar 27, 1835

PT reports on mummies being exhibited in Ohio.

Jul 1835 - Nov 1835

Transcript of BOA Manuscript–C [Abraham 1:1–2:18], dated circa July–November 1835.

Jul 1835 - Nov 1835

BOA Manuscript–B, circa July–November 1835.

Jul 1835

Joseph translates an alphabet and arranges a grammar to the BOA.

Jul 1835 - Nov 1835

BOA Manuscript–A, circa July–November 1835.

Jul 1835 - Mar 1842

Hand drawn copy of hypocephalus produced between 1835–1842.

Jul 3, 1835

Joseph first examines papyri, offers translation.

Jul 3, 1835

Joseph purchases papyri and mummies.

Jul 6, 1835

Joseph translates papyri in early July 1835.

Jul 6, 1835

Michael Chandler certificate that Joseph translated papyri correctly.

Jul 20, 1835

W.W. Phelps says Joseph has translated "rolls"; will make "good witness" for the BOM.

Jul 20, 1835

W.W. Phelps describes two papyrus rolls.

Aug 1835 - Mar 1838

John Whitmer says Joseph Smith as seer could translate papyri by "the revelation of Jesus Christ."

Aug 5, 1835

JS translates papyrus with "spectacles."

Aug 21, 1835

Joseph Bradley mentions Joseph translating the papyri in the Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate.

Aug 28, 1835

Albany Journal reprints newspaper article on Joseph acquiring mummies, papyri; says Joseph identified the mummies.

Sep 1835

Oliver Cowdery uses language from BOA to describe his and JS's priesthood ordination.

Sep 4, 1835

Non-LDS Painesville Telegraph paper reprints mocking description mummies and papyri; says Joseph identified the mummies as the biblical Joseph and Abimelech.

Sep 11, 1835

W.W. Phelps says work of translating BOA has stalled in letter to Sally Phelps.

Oct 1, 1835

Joseph, Oliver Cowdery, and W.W. Phelps are recorded as laboring on the on "Egyptian alphabet."

Oct 3, 1835

JS gives "explanation" of papyri to members of Q12.

Oct 7, 1835

Frederick G. Williams records that Joseph "recommences" translating the papyri.

Nov 1, 1835

Albert Brown says Joseph can translate papyri "without wisdom of this world."

Nov 14, 1835

Joseph gives revelation saying Warren Parrish will be scribe, assist in translating "ancient records."

Nov 17, 1835

JS shows papyri and mummies to EH.

Nov 19, 1835

Warren Parrish records that Joseph spent day translating Egyptian records.

Nov 20, 1835

JS spends day translating BOA.

Nov 24, 1835

Joseph records that he translated Egyptian records in his journal.

Nov 25, 1835

Joseph's journal for November 25, 1835, records that he spent the day translating BOA.

Nov 26, 1835

JS spends day "transcribing" Egyptian characters.

Dec 12, 1835

JS shows papyri and mummies; anonymous woman challenges JS.

Dec 16, 1835

JS "explained" Egyptian Records to apostles; describes formation of planetary system.

Dec 22, 1835

OC describes JS translating papyri for MC.

Jan 9, 1836

Anonymous critic is skeptical that Joseph can translate papyri.

Feb 11, 1836

JS spends day reading and showing papyri to guests.

Feb 17, 1836

Joseph agrees to allow Joseph Coe to exhibit mummies and papyri.

Aug 25, 1836

Truman Coe says Joseph "deciphered" papyri, this was seen as proof of "divine inspiration."

Sep 24, 1836

JS translating papyri; language same as BOM.

Nov 25, 1836

Wilford Woodruff sees papyri and mummies in Kirtland in the temple; says was written by Abraham's own hand.


William West says Joseph can translate missing portions of papyri.


William West describes the "four mummies" and "quantity of records."

May 13, 1837

WF sees papyri and mummies in Kirtland Temple, JS Sr. explains their contents.

Feb 5, 1838

Warren Parrish says he sat by Joseph's side as he translated by revelation.

Feb 5, 1838

Warren Parrish says he sat by Joseph's side as he translated by revelation.

May 6, 1838

JS gives sermon instructing Saints on themes from BOA.

Jul 26, 1838

William Swartzell says JS "intends" to translate papyri in 1838.


JC mentions JST Bible project and BOA translation project together.

Jun 26, 1839 - Aug 4, 1839

JS preaches sermon; draws from language of BOA.

Feb 5, 1840

Joseph, while preaching a sermon, draws from concepts from the Book of Abraham.

Jun 2, 1840

Anonymous source published in Sentinel of Freedom says Joseph identified hand writing of Abraham on papyri.

Jul 11, 1840

Anonymous source sees papyri, says JS identified the "signature" of Abraham, wanted to hang up translation in temple.


Tyler Parsons debates a Mormon who uses Book of Abraham in his argument.

Jan 5, 1841

JS gives sermon, draws on concepts from BOA.

Mar 9, 1841

JS gives sermon, draws on concepts from the BOA.

Mar 28, 1841

JS gives sermon, draws on concepts from the BOA.

May 1841

Joseph gives sermon where he draws from "Abraham's record"; teaches about the Godhead.

May 5, 1841

William I. Appleby visits Joseph and is shown papyri.

Sep 10, 1841

William Appleby describes seeing papyri and mummies; editor mocks Joseph.

Sep 29, 1841

Anonymous claim that JS knew identity of mummies by revelation.

Oct 7, 1841

Anonymous source reports Mormon missionary using Book of Abraham as evidence for Joseph being a prophet; says Book of Abraham will be published soon.

Dec 25, 1841

"C. H. A. D." says JS claims to read papyrus by gift of interpretation of tongues.


Daniel P. Kidder recounts recovery of papyri and mummies; speaks of JS having four mummies and a "roll" of papyrus.


Henry Caswall describes seeing papyri and mummies in 1842.


Daniel P. Kidder criticizes and mocks Facsimile 1.

Feb 1842

Manuscript version of explanations to Facsimile 1.

Feb 19, 1842

Wilford Woodruff assists in printing the Book of Abraham; records Joseph translating "hyeroglyphics" via Urim & Thummim.

Feb 21, 1842 - Feb 26, 1842

Wilford Woodruff prepares the type for the BOA to be printed.

Feb 21, 1842

BY admonishes LDS to assist JS in financial matters so that he can devote himself to spiritual concerns, including translation of BOA.

Feb 23, 1842

Joseph prepares facsimiles for publication.

Feb 23, 1842

Joseph instructs Reuben Hedlock on how to prepare Facsimile 1.

Feb 23, 1842 - Mar 2, 1842

Engraved Plate of Facsimile 1.

Mar 1, 1842

First published text of Book of Abraham (Abraham 1:1–2:18), "purporting" to be a translation of the writings of Abraham.

Mar 1, 1842

Joseph says the Book of Abraham was "penned by hand of Father Abraham"; will translate more when possible.

Mar 1, 1842

Joseph prepares Book of Abraham for publication.

Mar 1, 1842

T&S 1842 Facsimile 1.

Mar 1842

Manuscript version of explanations to Facsimile 2.

Mar 1, 1842

Joseph notifies readers of T&S that he is the new editor of the paper.

Mar 2, 1842

JS proofs the BOA to be published in T&S.

Mar 2, 1842

Joseph proofreads the first installment of Book of Abraham.

Mar 4, 1842

JS shows "original" papyri to RH to prepare for publication.

Mar 4, 1842 - Mar 19, 1842

Engraved Plate of Facsimile 2.

Mar 8, 1842

Joseph translates Book of Abraham text for the next issue of the Times and Seasons.

Mar 9, 1842

Joseph translates more Book of Abraham material.

Mar 15, 1842

Second installment of first published text of BOA (Abraham 2:19–5:21).

Mar 15, 1842

T&S 1842 publication of Facsimile 2.

Mar 15, 1842 - Apr 1, 1842

Reprint of original 1842 printing of Facsimile 2.

Mar 19, 1842

Wilford Woodruff spends time in the printing office preparing Book of Abraham and facsimiles.

Apr 2, 1842

Contemporary non-LDS newspaper announces publication of BOA.

Apr 5, 1842

Boston Daily Mail, a Non-LDS newspaper reports on publication of Book of Abraham.

Apr 26, 1842

The Telegraph reports that Joseph has published Book of Abraham, calls it a "revelation."

May 2, 1842

Joseph reprints James Gordon Bennett's editorial on Book of Abraham; calls Book of Abraham a "revelation."

May 2, 1842

Joseph responds to James Gordon Bennett on the mummies and papyri in the Times and Seasons.

May 7, 1842

Contemporary non-LDS newspaper NYO gives sarcastic report of publication of BOA.

May 9, 1842

James Gordon Bennett republishes Facsimile 1; comments on BOA in the Weekly Herald.

May 16, 1842

Engraved Plate of Facsimile 3.

May 16, 1842

T&S 1842 printing of Facsimile 3.

May 28, 1842

Baton-Rouge Gazette announces publication of Book of Abraham, is skeptical of its claims.

Jun 1842

Parley P. Pratt announces that Book of Abraham will soon be published; says it is older than the Bible.

Jul 1842

Parley P. Pratt gives overview of discovery and translation of the BOA.

Jul 1842

Parley P. Pratt reprints text of Abraham 1:1–2:18 in The Latter-day Saints' Millennial Star.

Jul 1842

PPP reprints Facsimile 1 in the MS.

Jul 15, 1842

Joseph cites the BOA in his teachings on how God reveals things to the world.

Aug 1842

PPP reflects on the publication of the BOA, says it is three or four thousand years old.

Aug 1842

Parley P. Pratt reprints Abraham 2:19–5:21.

Sep 1, 1842

JS cites BoA in discussion on persecution of prophets, calls it a "revelation," compares it with apocryphal book of Jasher.

Feb 1, 1843

John Taylor says Joseph promised to translate more of the Book of Abraham.

Mar 1843

Dublin University Magazine criticizes the contents of the BOA.

Mar 5, 1843

Charlotte Haven says a "long roll of manuscript" was the "writings of Abraham."

May 15, 1843

T&S says JS wants to start a museum in Nauvoo, include "hieroglyphics" and inscriptions in the exhibits.

Jul 7, 1843

BW visits Nauvoo, remarks on signage in front of JS's house charging "25 cents" to see mummies and papyri.

Aug 30, 1843

H. A. Graves reports on Adiel Sherwood visit to Nauvoo, says Lucy Mack Smith explained contents of papyri.

Aug 30, 1843

Adiel Sherwood says he saw mummies and papyri; Joseph says they are 4,000 years old; Lucy Mack Smith says they contain the teachings of Paul.

Nov 13, 1843

W.W. Phelps (Joseph's ghostwriter) quotes Facsimile 2 explanations, Grammar and Alphabet language.

Nov 15, 1843

Joseph suggests preparing an Egyptian grammar.

Dec 1843

W.W. Phelps (Joseph's ghostwriter) quotes the "Grammar and Alphabet of the Egyptian Language" amongst other languages.

Dec 1843

JG describes visiting Nauvoo, seeing mummies, meeting JS.

Dec 1843

Anonymous visitor to Nauvoo sees mummies and papyri.

Dec 21, 1843

LK describes seeing mummies, LMS identifies one as "King Onitus."

Jan 1, 1844

JC writes to JS asking to recuperate the money he paid for the mummies.

Jan 18, 1844

Joseph Smith replies to Joseph Coe letter of January 1 disputing any claim Joseph Coe has on monetary recompense for the mummies.

Jan 20, 1844

Anonymous non-LDS visitor describes seeing mummies, papyri.

Apr 25, 1844

Anonymous visitor reports visiting Lucy Mack Smith, who shows him papyri and mummies.

May 15, 1844

According to CFA, JS says papyri were written by the hand of Abraham.

May 16, 1844

Josiah Quincy writes to wife about visiting Joseph, mentions that Joseph translated hieroglyphs.

Jun 1, 1844

Richard Savary says JS translated Book of Abraham papyri in under an hour within getting papyri.

Jun 16, 1844

JS uses BOA in a discourse on plurality of gods.

Jun 16, 1844

JS says he learned about the Godhead from papyrus in his house.

Aug 9, 1844 - Aug 10, 1844

Zina D. Young visits Lucy Mack Smith and sees mummies/papyri.

Nov 22, 1844

ZDHJ sees mummies and papyri with LF and SL.

Dec 25, 1844

WWP says eternity is 2.55 billion years, got this information from "records . . . of Egypt".


Henry Halkett's summary of John Quincy visiting Joseph, seeing mummies. Joseph claims he alone can translate hieroglyphs.


Henry Halkett's summary of John Quincy visiting Joseph, seeing mummies. Claims one mummy is Pharaoh Necho.


LMS recounts how mobs wanted to destroy the mummies and papyri.


W. Aitken visits Lucy Mack Smith, views papyri and mummies, calls the mummy Pharaoh, conflates discovery of the Book of Abraham with the Book of Mormon.

Aug 26, 1845

Anonymous source ("P.") sees mummies and papyri, says that LMS told them about the coming forth of the BOM in connection with the exhibit.

Sep 10, 1845

WS reports on a visitor to Nauvoo who saw mummies and papyri; claims that LMS said Joseph of Egypt buried the papyrus.

Jul 11, 1846

JHC reports that Brigham Young and others gave "sheets of hieroglyphics" to Indian chief.


Reuban Miller shows JJS the "translation of the book of Abraham" in a theological argument over priesthood.

Oct 3, 1846

Lucy Mack Smith shows papyri; says JS used hat to translate papyrus.

Oct 3, 1846

Lucy Mack Smith shows papyri to visitors.

Dec 2, 1846

WS says mummies and records are safe with LMS in Nauvoo.

Dec 14, 1846

WS discusses how to send the mummies and papyri to JS in Voree, WI.

1848 - 1892

Jonathan Crosby records seeing the papyri, has them explained to him, says language is same as the Book of Mormon.

Jan 31, 1848

AB reports that WS has mummies, refuses to give them to the Utah LDS Church.

Jun 1848

Lucy Mack Smith says Joseph translated by "inspiration", links it to the coming forth of the Book of Mormon.

Jun 1848

"F. J." visits Lucy Mack Smith, sees mummies and papyri, identifies mummies as "kings and queens."


Caroline Barnes Crosby has papyri explained to her by Emma Smith, who got the information from Joseph.


Reprint of BOA and Facsimiles in the 1851 first edition of the POGP.

Jul 15, 1851

Franklin D. Richards announces the Pearl of Great Price will soon to be published, will contain Book of Abraham and Facsimiles.

1852 - 1912

Mary A. Stearns Winters sees mummies and papyri as a young girl, Joseph tells her they are "thousands of years old."

1852 - 1876

LAS visits Kirtland Temple, sees mummies and papyri, describes papyri.

Jul 1852

Anonymous guest sees papyri and mummies; Lucy Mack Smith describes contents.

Aug 29, 1852

OP uses BOA in his teachings on pre-existence, how some spirits are called and chosen, etc.

Aug 29, 1852

OP cites BOA in sermon on plural marriage regarding pre-mortal spirits coming to earth.

Apr 1853

OP cites BOA in discussion on pre-mortal existence, calls it an "ancient revelation."

Apr 1, 1853

SMH reprints article in SFH summarizing OP speech using the BOA to say JS was a descendant of Abraham.

May 1853

Orson Pratt cites BOA in discussion of pre-mortal existence, says the BOA was translated by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.


EF visits Nauvoo in June 1844; sees mummies and papyri; mentions son's "revelations."

Jan 28, 1854

Josiah Quincy recounts visit to Nauvoo in 1844, visiting Joseph, seeing mummies and papyri, says Joseph identified handwriting of Abraham and Moses on the papyri.

Jan 28, 1854

Josiah Quincy recounts visit to Nauvoo in 1844, visiting Joseph, seeing mummies and papyri, says Joseph explained vignettes on papyri.


Samuel Birch comments on Facsimile 2; compares it with another hypocephalus, says characters are badly copied, JS's interpretation "throw no light upon it."

Aug 12, 1855

George A. Smith retells how JS got the papyri, relates anecdote about the BOA and papyri.

Oct 17, 1855

CHO documents possession of "Egyptian alphabet" documents in 1855.

May 26, 1856

EHS sells mummies and papyri fragments to AC in 1856.

Sep 13, 1856

GS mentions JS Papyri in St. Louis Museum, describes them and their content.

Dec 1856

Orson Pratt say JS translated the Book Of Abraham by the same power as the BOM (i.e., revelation).

Dec 20, 1856

William I. Appleby includes the contents of the Book of Abraham as part of the list of "restored" truths via "the aid of the Urim and Thummim."


FDR writes of "rolls of Egyptian papyrus" being acquired by JS.

May 13, 1857

DMD mentions JS Papyri and mummies being in the St. Louis Museum.

Jun 5, 1857

St. Louis Museum publishes notice of JS Papyri on exhibit.

Jun 12, 1857

DMD publishes notice of JS Papyri being in St. Louis Museum; reproduces bill of sale to AC.

Sep 4, 1857

"W. M. L." reports seeing JS Papyri and Mummies in St. Louis Museum in 1857, is informed by GS that the owner of the papyrus is named Horus.

Sep 25, 1857

San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin republishes information on Emma Hale Smith purchasing the Joseph Papyri and Mummies.


GS disputes JS's interpretation of papyri; correctly identifies owner of papyrus as Hor (Horus); describes Facsimile 3.

Jul 10, 1859

OP says he witnessed JS translating the BOA.


WWP discusses Kolob and the contribution of the BOA.


JR discusses BOA; cites TD on the facsimiles; TD interprets facsimiles differently than JS.


English translation/reprint of JR's Voyage au pays des Mormons; JR discusses BOA; cites TD on BOA facsimiles; TD interprets them differently than JS.


Louis Alphonse Bertrand gives an LDS response to early criticism of the facsimiles.


CM catalog for 1863 indicating possession of JS Papyri and mummies.


ELS gives notice in directory of holdings in Wood's Museum; mentions papyri and mummies being in the collection, according to museum catalogue.

Dec 29, 1872

Orson Pratt cites BOA in discourse on Creation, meaning of "day" and "year", etc.


TBHS publishes criticism of the BOA; accuses JS of psychosis.


T. B. H. Stenhouse says he heard W. W. Phelps say that Joseph Smith first learned about polygamy translating the BOA papyri.

Feb 7, 1873

SLDT reprints portion of TBH Stenhouse book critical of BoA; says JS used the U&T to translate the text.

Nov 22, 1873

Orson Pratt cites BOA on issue of "time" vs. "day" in Creation.

Apr 19, 1875

SSL sees papyri and mummies.

Aug 25, 1878

Orson Pratt recounts translation of Book Of Abraham; associates it with Urim & Thummim.

Sep 2, 1878

First Presidency sends Joseph F. Smith and Orson Pratt on mission to collect church records; Orson Pratt is aware of papyri being in Wood's Museum, suggests effort be made to get them.

Feb 1879

Anson Call recalls handling papyri, reading from BOA translation for two hours.

Mar 4, 1879

BDT summarizes content of Facsimile 2.

1880 - 1909

EBM sees mummies and papyri, describes LMS explaining who the mummies are, says JS knows their identity by revelation.


OP says he saw the mummies and papyri in Wood's Museum before they were destroyed.

Aug 1880

Frederic G. Mather says JS could read missing portions of papyri by "special revelation."

Oct 12, 1880

POGP, including BOA and Facsimiles, is canonized as a standard work at GC.

Dec 29, 1880

Anonymous author in Deseret News argues that Pearl Of Great Price accounts of creation corroborate the Bible, are also confirmed by science.


Franklin D. Richards notes "rolls of papyrus" containing writings of Abraham obtained by JS.


HA remembers seeing papyri, but cannot recall precise details of visit.


JQ saws JS translated BOA "by direct inspiration."


Josiah Quincy views mummies and papyri.


Samuel Birch remarks on Facsimile 2.

Jul 1884

Edward Tullidge gives account of Joseph acquiring mummies and papyri, claims his source is John R. Riggs.

Nov 16, 1884

Charles W. Penrose briefly mentions BOA cosmology in sermon.


BFJ remembers seeing papyri and mummies, calls them "princes and queens."

Mar 1885

Report of Nels Lars Nelson lecture on the papyri and mummies; says part of the ink was blue; says Samuel Mitchell directed Michael Chandler to visit Joseph with papyri.


J. H. Kennedy says that Joseph Jr. could translate the papyri as soon as he saw them.


George Q. Cannon says BOA was translated by inspiration.


BHR recounts discovery and translation of the BOA.

Aug 19, 1888

Orson F. Whitney uses BoA in discussion on "day" vs. "time" in Creation.

Aug 2, 1889

Howard Coray witnessed JS translate with "the Seer's stone."

Jan 16, 1891

AJ discusses discovery and translation of BOA; talks about its astronomy.

Jan 16, 1891

AJ recounts discovery and translation of BOA; discusses its astronomy.

Mar 1, 1892

Edwin Holden remembers seeing papyri and mummies in Kirtland Temple.

Nov 4, 1893

RH remembers seeing mummies and papyri.

Aug 12, 1894

Orson F. Whitney delivers discourse, cites BOA on pre-existence.

Nov 10, 1894

CDE discusses Abraham's vision in the BOA; says the U&T was an "instrument" like a telescope.


BHR recounts translation of BOA; discusses the cosmology of the text; argues it is evidence that JS was a prophet.

Apr 7, 1895

George Q. Cannon disusses BOA teaching on the gradation of spirits and stars.

Jul 31, 1897

Foster W. Jones says Henry Tressler saw "rolls of papyrus" that BOA was translated from.

Oct 24, 1898

Joseph Smith III describes seeing mummies and papyri, discusses how they ended up in Wood's Museum.

Aug 19, 1901

DEN summarizes lecture given by MT, who uses BoA to show JS was a true prophet.

Oct 15, 1903

Millennial Star reports on missionaries in Vienna seeing hypocephali in museum; official guide of the museum compares them with Facsimile 2 of Book of Abraham.

Oct 17, 1903

DEN reprints a report by FMA about visiting Nauvoo, seeing BOA manuscript with hieroglyphic characters in the margins.

1904 - 1907

Benjamin Ashby recalls seeing papyri and mummies.

Apr 1904

BHR discusses loss of BOA papyrus, relates to the BOM plates being given back to Moroni.


JHE gives overview of coming forth of BOA, says text was "reveal[ed] to the world" by JS.


CHW remembers seeing mummies in JS's home as a girl in Nauvoo.

May 25, 1909

Cora Agnes Bennison recounts militia men in Nauvoo seeing "an interminable roll" of papyrus and mummies.

Jul 28, 1910

C. C. A. Christensen recounts discovery and translation of Book of Abraham for Danish LDS periodical.

Dec 1910

Levi Edgar Young recounts history of BOA, says it was translated by inspiration.

Jan 1911

Isaac Ball recounts translation of the Book of Abraham for young women LDS.


Spalding collects statements from Egyptologists condemning JS's interpretation of the facsimiles.


OFW cites BOA in discussion of time difference and fall of Adam.

Jan 16, 1918

AML memorandum to Met Museum describing ACH visiting museum and showing the JS Papyri in her possession.

Jan 1922

Jerusha Walker Blanchard says "roll of papyrus" was source of BOA.

Dec 8, 1924

DN paraphrases lecture by Jean Capart on the BoA and facsimiles; says BOA is vindicated by ancient Egyptian knowledge of astronomy.

Feb 1929

Janne M. Sjodahl recounts translation of BOA for LDS youth.

May 1929

JEH recounts BOA translation; defends BOA's inspiration.


N. B. Lundwall reprints unsourced claim that Jonathan Crosby said books of Moses, Enoch also found with mummies.


Solomon H. Hale remembers Joseph getting upset when boys were playing with mummies.


The Met bulletin lists acquisition of the JS Papyri in 1947.


Alan Gardiner explains phrase "in the hand of" in ancient Egyptian.

Jan 29, 1959

Nibley reproduces communication by Hughes to Petersen on the interpretation of the figures in Facsimile 1.


BML recounts experience of ECK seeing mummies, receiving blessing from JS.

Nov 30, 1963

Deseret News recounts how Zina D. Young hid mummies under her bed for safekeeping.

Jun 3, 1966

DO McKay discusses reports of surviving papyri with FP.


Dialogue interviews HGF; he says original scrolls could have been "quite long," perhaps as long as 15 feet.


HGF discusses how the Met came into possession of the JS Papyri fragments.

Feb 15, 1967

McKay discusses developments with reacquiring the JS Papyri.

Oct 5, 1967

David O. McKay records in diary that First Presidency continued talks about acquisition of the Joseph Smith Papyri.

Nov 7, 1967

David O. McKay records in journal that First Presidency discussed where to keep the Joseph Smith Papyri after acquisition, arranges for transfer ceremony.

Nov 27, 1967

Jack E. Jarrard reports that the Joseph Smith Papyri were returned to the Church.

Nov 27, 1967

First Presidency and Quorum of the12 discussion of Tanner report about acquisition of JS Papyri, plans for the papyri; Q12 view the papyri after acquisition.

Nov 29, 1967

Salt Lake Tribune reports that JS Papyri will be sent to BYU, studied by Hugh W. Nibley.

Dec 2, 1967

Church News reports on the recovery of the Joseph Smith Papyri.

Dec 6, 1967

First Presidency discussion on what to do with the Joseph Smith Papyri; resolved to preserve them and let Nibley study them at BYU.


Klaus Baer translates the Hor Book of Breathings among the Joseph Smith Papyri.


Hugh W. Nibley relays unsourced claim that papyri rolls extended through two rooms in the Mansion House.

Jan 1968

JMT writes about the rediscovery of the JS Papyri in the Church's magazine.


RAP translates the Hor Book of Breathings among the JS Papyri.


BYU Studies publishes photos of the Joseph Smith Papyri.

Jan 23, 1968

McKay discuss plans to publish photographs of the JS Papyri.

Feb 1968

IE publishes photographs of the JS Papyri in the February 1968 issue of the magazine.

Feb 10, 1968

JEJ reports rediscovery of fragment of JS Papyri in Church archives.

Mar 1968

Hugh W. Nibley relates account of JFS seeing the papyri spread out wide as JS studied them.


Hugh W. Nibley explains significance of "by his own hand" in BOA header.


HWN translation of the Hor Book of Breathings.

Mar 1976

Nibley offers an approach to interpreting the facsimiles; emphasizes ancient elements in Joseph's explanations.


CMH connects Kolob and cites BOA with astronomical symbolism on the Salt Lake Temple.

Jul 1988

MDR answers questions about the JS Papyri and Book of Abraham in the Ensign.

Jul 1992

Gee argues for authentic ancient elements in Joseph Smith's explanations to the BOA facsimiles.

Jan 1994

Peterson argues for historicity of BOA and authenticity of JS's explanations of the facsimiles.


Gee discusses how Figure 3 of Facsimile 1 could be a priest even with a jackal head.


James Hoch explains meaning of Egyptian idiom "by the hand of."


Rhodes gives translation and commentary of Facsimile 2.


James R. Harris recounts anecdote of Preston Nibley that he heard Joseph F. Smith remember seeing the papyri, describes a long roll.


RKR translates the Hor Book of Breathings among the JS Papyri.


John Gee reviews the facsimiles of the BOA and discusses the interpretation of specific figures.


Gee highlights the changes made to Fac 2 in the various editions of the Pearl of Great Price.


Michael D. Rhodes translation of the Hor Book of Breathings among the JS Papyri.


Rhodes translates figures in Facsimile 3 of the BOA.


MD Rhodes translates hieroglyphs accompanying vignette in JS Papyri.


Rhodes discusses two vignettes on the Hor Book of Breathings (Facs. 1 and 3).


CES manual discusses BOA translation.


RKR revised translation from 2000 of the Hor Book of Breathings among the JS Papyri.


Rhodes publishes on BoA Facsimiles; lays out method for approaching them.


Revised and expanded version of HWN translation of Hor Book of Breathings.


Barney outlines a theory for "Jewish Redactor" of the BOA Facsimiles.


Gee discusses Facsimile 3 of BOA, disputes idea that it is a judgement scene.


J Gee discusses methods for studying facsimiles, cautions about taking underlying assumptions for granted.


Gee reviews miscellaneous advances in BOA scholarship up to 2008.


MDR translation of the JS Papyri fragments; Books of the Dead of Tshemmin and Neferirnub.


Nibley and Rhodes explain significance of Figure 7 of Fac 2 from ancient Egyptian perspective.


Nibley and Rhodes give exhaustive commentary on Facsimile 2.


Kerry Muhlestein discusses the significance of the BOA Header.


Translation of JS Papyri by RKR.


Bible chronology chart in 2013 LDS edition of the Bible.


2013 official text of the BOA.


Introduction to the 2013 official edition of the POGP.


Muhlestein explains background of JS Papyri and discusses ways JS's interpretation of Facsimile 1 make sense from an Egyptological perspective.


1981/2013 current edition of the canonical Book of Abraham with facsimiles.


Barney argues for the plausibility of Joseph's interpretation of Figure 9 in Facsimile 1.

Nov 14, 2013

Smoot interviews Muhlestein on issues related to the Book of Abraham and the facsimiles.

Jul 2014

Gospel Topics essay on the BOA.

Oct 23, 2015

Church Newsroom lists original dates of publication of Gospel Topics essays; BOA essay published on July 8, 2014.


Kerry Muhlestein and Megan Hansen give proposed reconstruction of translation timeline of the Book of Abraham.


Muhlestein discusses implications of Abraham 1:12, 14 for the relationship of text with facsimiles.


Kerry Muhlestein discusses models for evaluating the BOA and Joseph's interpretation of the facsimiles.


Ann Macy Roth explains that there are ancient Egyptian divinities connected with fertility.


John Gee proposes reconstruction of the timeline of the translation of the Book of Abraham.


JG gives overview of the Book of Breathings text.


Michael D. Rhodes gives overview of Book of the Dead for LDS readers.


JSP editors discuss marginal characters in BOA manuscript margins.


Gee overviews the BOA Facsimiles in LDS reference work.


Gee discusses textual history of Abraham 1:12, 14.


Gee discusses BOA Facsimiles and shows authentic elements in JS explanations.


Institute Manual for POGP explaining Church's position on the BOA Facsimiles.


John Gee examines literary titles in ancient Egypt; shows that "by/of the hand" was an idiom used in literary titles in ancient Egyptian texts to denote authorship.


Barney writes MA thesis on Facsimile 3.


Givens reviews BOA history and reception, argues for expansive understanding of Joseph Smith as translator.


Mekis gives exhaustive Egyptological discussion of the hypocephalus.


POGP Central article on Figure 7 of Facsimile 2 exploring issues surrounding its identification.


POPG Central article on Figure 3 of Facsimile 1 exploring issues surrounding its identification.


Brown argues that Joseph Smith took a metaphysical approach to interpreting hieroglyphs, facsimiles.


Mekis translates and transliterates Egyptian characters from Facsimile 2.

Jan 17, 2020

POGP Central highlights evidence for Joseph's interpretation of Facsimile 2, Figure 6.


The Joseph Smith Papers editors reconstruct a timeline of the translation of the Book of Abraham.


JSP notes marginal characters in BOA manuscripts, says they come from papyri and other unknown sources.


JSP notes the marginal characters in BOA manuscripts, note that some of them come from the Grammar and Alphabet documents.


Smoot discusses textual history of Abraham 1:12, 14.