Seer Stones

277 Primary Sources

600 BC

Saul consults a witch after using the Urim did not work.

520 BC

Exodus records how God appeared to Moses in the form of a burning bush.

520 BC

God commands Moses to use the Urim to receive revelation.

80 - 80 AD

The apostles picked the apostle to replace Judas (Matthias) by lots.


Elias Ashmole discusses Belief in "Angellical Stones" which can result in objects being found.


Francis Barrett describes how a man can use a stone to find treasure.

1824 - 1904

Picture of ER's seer stone.

Jul 17, 1829

Jesse Smith refers to Joseph's spectacles and deciphering of hieroglyphics.

Aug 11, 1829

According to Jonathan Hadley, Joseph said that he used a huge pair of spectacles to translate the BOM.

Jun 18, 1830

Diedrich Willers describes how Joseph would use spectacles that he claimed to find next to the plates to translate.

Sep 1830

JS declares to HP that his seer stone is not of God, that HP has been deceived.

Dec 1830

The Philadelphia Album reports that Joseph used two clear stones to translate the Book of Mormon.

Jan 29, 1831

Richard McNemar writes in his journal that Joseph translated with 2 transparent stones in a hat.

Apr 9, 1831

Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate prints Abram W. Benton's letter critical of Joseph as a "glass-looker"; describes Joseph's 1826 trial.

Oct 24, 1831

Ezra Booth writes letter critical of Joseph's "dark glass."

Dec 8, 1831

EB in OH describes HP's stone and its use.


Willard Chase provides a statement to E.D. Howe claiming Joseph found his seer stone while digging a well.

1833 - 1847

Joseph Knight recalls Joseph using "glass" to see Emma Hale.


Henry Harris comments on Joseph's "fortune-telling" with stone.


Alva Hale comments on Joseph's use of seer stones.

May 1, 1834

Letter by IH on JS's money-digging and "seeing."

Oct 1, 1834

Oliver Cowdery says Joseph used the Nephite Interpreters to translate the BOM.

Dec 25, 1834

W.W. Phelps calls Joseph's translation instrument "Nephite Interpreters."


Isaac Hale describes Joseph as using the stone in the hat while translating the BOM.

Mar 25, 1835

Anonymous source published in the Cleveland Whig describes papyri before Joseph acquired them.

Mar 27, 1835

PT reports on mummies being exhibited in Ohio.

Jul 1835 - Nov 1835

Transcript of BOA Manuscript–C [Abraham 1:1–2:18], dated circa July–November 1835.

Jul 1835 - Nov 1835

BOA Manuscript–B, circa July–November 1835.

Jul 1835

Joseph translates an alphabet and arranges a grammar to the BOA.

Jul 1835 - Nov 1835

BOA Manuscript–A, circa July–November 1835.

Jul 3, 1835

Joseph first examines papyri, offers translation.

Jul 6, 1835

Michael Chandler certificate that Joseph translated papyri correctly.

Jul 6, 1835

Joseph translates papyri in early July 1835.

Jul 20, 1835

W.W. Phelps says Joseph has translated "rolls"; will make "good witness" for the BOM.

Aug 1835 - Mar 1838

John Whitmer says Joseph Smith as seer could translate papyri by "the revelation of Jesus Christ."

Aug 5, 1835

JS translates papyrus with "spectacles."

Aug 21, 1835

Joseph Bradley mentions Joseph translating the papyri in the Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate.

Sep 1835

Oliver Cowdery uses language from BOA to describe his and JS's priesthood ordination.

Sep 11, 1835

W.W. Phelps says work of translating BOA has stalled in letter to Sally Phelps.

Oct 1, 1835

Joseph, Oliver Cowdery, and W.W. Phelps are recorded as laboring on the on "Egyptian alphabet."

Oct 3, 1835

JS gives "explanation" of papyri to members of Q12.

Oct 7, 1835

Oliver Cowdery says JS used the Urim and Thummim for Newel K. Whitney's patriarchal blessing.

Oct 7, 1835

Frederick G. Williams records that Joseph "recommences" translating the papyri.

Nov 1, 1835

Albert Brown says Joseph can translate papyri "without wisdom of this world."

Nov 14, 1835

Joseph gives revelation saying Warren Parrish will be scribe, assist in translating "ancient records."

Nov 19, 1835

Warren Parrish records that Joseph spent day translating Egyptian records.

Nov 20, 1835

JS spends day translating BOA.

Nov 24, 1835

Joseph records that he translated Egyptian records in his journal.

Nov 25, 1835

Joseph's journal for November 25, 1835, records that he spent the day translating BOA.

Nov 26, 1835

JS spends day "transcribing" Egyptian characters.

Dec 16, 1835

JS "explained" Egyptian Records to apostles; describes formation of planetary system.

Dec 22, 1835

OC describes JS translating papyri for MC.

Dec 27, 1835

Edward Patridge recorded that Eliza "sees by the help of a stone."

Jan 9, 1836

Anonymous critic is skeptical that Joseph can translate papyri.

Feb 11, 1836

JS spends day reading and showing papyri to guests.

Aug 25, 1836

Letter to the editor from TC mentioning JS's use of the stone.

Aug 25, 1836

Truman Coe says Joseph "deciphered" papyri, this was seen as proof of "divine inspiration."

Sep 24, 1836

JS translating papyri; language same as BOM.


William West says Joseph can translate missing portions of papyri.

Feb 5, 1838

Warren Parrish says he sat by Joseph's side as he translated by revelation.

Feb 5, 1838

Warren Parrish says he sat by Joseph's side as he translated by revelation.

May 6, 1838

JS gives sermon instructing Saints on themes from BOA.

Jul 26, 1838

William Swartzell says JS "intends" to translate papyri in 1838.

1839 - 1843

Discussion of the Hiram Page incident in Joseph's History.

1839 - 1841

Joseph recalls his recovering the Urim & Thummim.


M'Chesney's mentions "fortune-telling" by an "enchanted stone placed in a hat."


JC mentions JST Bible project and BOA translation project together.

Jun 26, 1839 - Aug 4, 1839

JS preaches sermon; draws from language of BOA.

Feb 5, 1840

Joseph, while preaching a sermon, draws from concepts from the Book of Abraham.

Jun 1840

Parley Pratt described Joseph translating the BOM with "two transparent stones, clear as chrystal."

Jun 2, 1840

Anonymous source published in Sentinel of Freedom says Joseph identified hand writing of Abraham on papyri.

Jul 11, 1840

Anonymous source sees papyri, says JS identified the "signature" of Abraham, wanted to hang up translation in temple.


Tyler Parsons debates a Mormon who uses Book of Abraham in his argument.

Jan 5, 1841

JS gives sermon, draws on concepts from BOA.

Mar 9, 1841

JS gives sermon, draws on concepts from the BOA.

Mar 27, 1841

Alfred Cordon recalls William Mountford possessing "Glasses or Chystals."

Mar 28, 1841

JS gives sermon, draws on concepts from the BOA.

May 1841

Joseph gives sermon where he draws from "Abraham's record"; teaches about the Godhead.

May 5, 1841

William I. Appleby visits Joseph and is shown papyri.

Sep 10, 1841

William Appleby describes seeing papyri and mummies; editor mocks Joseph.

Oct 7, 1841

Anonymous source reports Mormon missionary using Book of Abraham as evidence for Joseph being a prophet; says Book of Abraham will be published soon.

Dec 25, 1841

"C. H. A. D." says JS claims to read papyrus by gift of interpretation of tongues.


Daniel P. Kidder recounts recovery of papyri and mummies; speaks of JS having four mummies and a "roll" of papyrus.

Feb 19, 1842

Wilford Woodruff assists in printing the Book of Abraham; records Joseph translating "hyeroglyphics" via Urim & Thummim.

Feb 21, 1842 - Feb 26, 1842

Wilford Woodruff prepares the type for the BOA to be printed.

Feb 21, 1842

BY admonishes LDS to assist JS in financial matters so that he can devote himself to spiritual concerns, including translation of BOA.

Mar 1, 1842

First published text of Book of Abraham (Abraham 1:1–2:18), "purporting" to be a translation of the writings of Abraham.

Mar 1, 1842

Joseph says the Book of Abraham was "penned by hand of Father Abraham"; will translate more when possible.

Mar 1, 1842

Joseph prepares Book of Abraham for publication.

Mar 2, 1842

JS proofs the BOA to be published in T&S.

Mar 2, 1842

Joseph proofreads the first installment of Book of Abraham.

Mar 8, 1842

Joseph translates Book of Abraham text for the next issue of the Times and Seasons.

Mar 9, 1842

Joseph translates more Book of Abraham material.

Mar 15, 1842

Second installment of first published text of BOA (Abraham 2:19–5:21).

Mar 19, 1842

Wilford Woodruff spends time in the printing office preparing Book of Abraham and facsimiles.

Apr 2, 1842

Contemporary non-LDS newspaper announces publication of BOA.

Apr 5, 1842

Boston Daily Mail, a Non-LDS newspaper reports on publication of Book of Abraham.

Apr 26, 1842

The Telegraph reports that Joseph has published Book of Abraham, calls it a "revelation."

May 2, 1842

Joseph reprints James Gordon Bennett's editorial on Book of Abraham; calls Book of Abraham a "revelation."

May 7, 1842

Contemporary non-LDS newspaper NYO gives sarcastic report of publication of BOA.

May 28, 1842

Baton-Rouge Gazette announces publication of Book of Abraham, is skeptical of its claims.

Jun 1842

Parley P. Pratt announces that Book of Abraham will soon be published; says it is older than the Bible.

Jul 1842

Parley P. Pratt gives overview of discovery and translation of the BOA.

Jul 1842

Parley P. Pratt reprints text of Abraham 1:1–2:18 in The Latter-day Saints' Millennial Star.

Jul 15, 1842

Joseph cites the BOA in his teachings on how God reveals things to the world.

Aug 1842

PPP reflects on the publication of the BOA, says it is three or four thousand years old.

Aug 1842

Parley P. Pratt reprints Abraham 2:19–5:21.

Sep 1, 1842

JS cites BoA in discussion on persecution of prophets, calls it a "revelation," compares it with apocryphal book of Jasher.

Feb 1, 1843

John Taylor says Joseph promised to translate more of the Book of Abraham.

Mar 1843

Dublin University Magazine criticizes the contents of the BOA.

Mar 5, 1843

Charlotte Haven says a "long roll of manuscript" was the "writings of Abraham."

Apr 2, 1843

WC records JS teaching about celestial U&T.

Aug 30, 1843

H. A. Graves reports on Adiel Sherwood visit to Nauvoo, says Lucy Mack Smith explained contents of papyri.

Nov 13, 1843

W.W. Phelps (Joseph's ghostwriter) quotes Facsimile 2 explanations, Grammar and Alphabet language.

Nov 15, 1843

Joseph suggests preparing an Egyptian grammar.

Dec 1843

W.W. Phelps (Joseph's ghostwriter) quotes the "Grammar and Alphabet of the Egyptian Language" amongst other languages.

1844 - 1845

LMS recalls SC's green stone.


Joseph comments on translation process: he used the Urim and Thummim by the power of God.

Jan 20, 1844

Anonymous non-LDS visitor describes seeing mummies, papyri.

May 15, 1844

According to CFA, JS says papyri were written by the hand of Abraham.

May 16, 1844

Josiah Quincy writes to wife about visiting Joseph, mentions that Joseph translated hieroglyphs.

Jun 1, 1844

Richard Savary says JS translated Book of Abraham papyri in under an hour within getting papyri.

Jun 16, 1844

JS uses BOA in a discourse on plurality of gods.

Dec 25, 1844

WWP says eternity is 2.55 billion years, got this information from "records . . . of Egypt".


Henry Halkett's summary of John Quincy visiting Joseph, seeing mummies. Joseph claims he alone can translate hieroglyphs.

Dec 15, 1845

WW mentions women possessing peep stones.

Jul 11, 1846

JHC reports that Brigham Young and others gave "sheets of hieroglyphics" to Indian chief.


Reuban Miller shows JJS the "translation of the book of Abraham" in a theological argument over priesthood.

Oct 3, 1846

Lucy Mack Smith shows papyri; says JS used hat to translate papyrus.

1848 - 1892

Jonathan Crosby records seeing the papyri, has them explained to him, says language is same as the Book of Mormon.

Jun 1848

Lucy Mack Smith says Joseph translated by "inspiration", links it to the coming forth of the Book of Mormon.

May 6, 1849

Discussion among Q12 about JS "first seer stone."


Caroline Barnes Crosby has papyri explained to her by Emma Smith, who got the information from Joseph.


Reprint of BOA and Facsimiles in the 1851 first edition of the POGP.

Jul 15, 1851

Franklin D. Richards announces the Pearl of Great Price will soon to be published, will contain Book of Abraham and Facsimiles.

Aug 29, 1852

OP uses BOA in his teachings on pre-existence, how some spirits are called and chosen, etc.

Aug 29, 1852

OP cites BOA in sermon on plural marriage regarding pre-mortal spirits coming to earth.


Lucy Mack Smith, in her biographical sketches, says Joseph possessed "keys" to "discern" invisible things.

Apr 1853

OP cites BOA in discussion on pre-mortal existence, calls it an "ancient revelation."

Apr 1, 1853

SMH reprints article in SFH summarizing OP speech using the BOA to say JS was a descendant of Abraham.

Apr 17, 1853

Brigham Young on Joseph's multiple seer stones in the Historian's Office General Church Minutes (April 1853).

May 1853

Orson Pratt cites BOA in discussion of pre-mortal existence, says the BOA was translated by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.

Jan 28, 1854

Josiah Quincy recounts visit to Nauvoo in 1844, visiting Joseph, seeing mummies and papyri, says Joseph identified handwriting of Abraham and Moses on the papyri.

Sep 30, 1855

B. Young discusses J. Smith's five seer stones.

Oct 17, 1855

CHO documents possession of "Egyptian alphabet" documents in 1855.

Feb 25, 1856

HS's journal records BY showing JS's seer stone.

Apr 6, 1856

Emer Harris provides a statement concerning Hiram Page's seer stone.

Dec 1856

Orson Pratt say JS translated the Book Of Abraham by the same power as the BOM (i.e., revelation).

Dec 20, 1856

William I. Appleby includes the contents of the Book of Abraham as part of the list of "restored" truths via "the aid of the Urim and Thummim."


FDR writes of "rolls of Egyptian papyrus" being acquired by JS.

Mar 10, 1858

Brigham Young reports seeing Joseph's seer stone.

Jul 10, 1859

OP says he witnessed JS translating the BOA.

Aug 1859

Martin Harris recalls Joseph finding a pin with a stone; money-digging in an interview with Joel Tiffany.

Sep 11, 1859

WW records BY saying how JS found first stone.


WWP discusses Kolob and the contribution of the BOA.


George A. Smith recounting Hiram Page incident; quotes from Church History manuscript.


Pomeroy Tucker writes that the white stone was found in a well; used in fortune-telling and "seership."

May 1870

Historical Magazine prints interview of Fayette Lapham and Joseph Smith Sr. on seer stone retrieval, money-digging, and fortune-telling.

Dec 29, 1872

Orson Pratt cites BOA in discourse on Creation, meaning of "day" and "year", etc.


Blackman records Buck narrating how Jack Belcher's stone ended up with Joseph.


Anonymous account of JS's 1826 trial over seer stone.


TBHS publishes criticism of the BOA; accuses JS of psychosis.


T. B. H. Stenhouse says he heard W. W. Phelps say that Joseph Smith first learned about polygamy translating the BOA papyri.

Feb 7, 1873

SLDT reprints portion of TBH Stenhouse book critical of BoA; says JS used the U&T to translate the text.

Nov 22, 1873

Orson Pratt cites BOA on issue of "time" vs. "day" in Creation.

May 2, 1877

Chenango Union publishes William D. Purple's notes on Joseph's 1826 trial.

Aug 25, 1878

Orson Pratt recounts translation of Book Of Abraham; associates it with Urim & Thummim.

Sep 29, 1878

James R.B. Van Cleave, in 1878, recalls that Joseph used a stone in hat to receive the revelation that is now (LDS) D&C 34.

Dec 16, 1878

OP recalls that JS used a seer stone to receive revelation.

1879 - 1903

Priddy Meeks recalls meeting a "natural seer" with a peepstone.

Feb 1879

Anson Call recalls handling papyri, reading from BOA translation for two hours.

Aug 1880

Smith got seer stone from well; used it for "peeking."

Aug 1880

Frederic G. Mather says JS could read missing portions of papyri by "special revelation."

Oct 12, 1880

POGP, including BOA and Facsimiles, is canonized as a standard work at GC.

Dec 29, 1880

Anonymous author in Deseret News argues that Pearl Of Great Price accounts of creation corroborate the Bible, are also confirmed by science.

Jun 1, 1881

James T. Cobb says Joseph found stone near well; Chase's sister, Sarah "Sally" Chase was a seer.


Franklin D. Richards notes "rolls of papyrus" containing writings of Abraham obtained by JS.

Mar 9, 1882

FDR sees JT's seer stone given by OC.


NK on HP's seer stone.


JQ saws JS translated BOA "by direct inspiration."

Mar 25, 1884

DW recalls JS using seer stone to see his travels.

Jul 1884

Joseph provided a translation of papyri for Michael Chandler upon first examining papyri; is said to have matched Charles Anthon's own translation.

Nov 16, 1884

Charles W. Penrose briefly mentions BOA cosmology in sermon.


Ellen E. Dickinson, based on an unknown source, reports Joseph claimed to have found stone while digging a well.

Mar 18, 1885

Deseret News reports on seer stone use.

Jan 1886

Joseph is reported to have looked through a white stone at a candle to see things from a distance.


Abel Chase reports that Joseph retrieved stone from a well.


DW records JS giving stone to OC.


David Whitmer recalls revelation through the seer stone.

Jan 1887

Maria L. Cowdery Johnson recalls Phineas Young obtaining Oliver Cowdery's seer stone.

Feb 5, 1887

DW on HP's revelations via stone.

Feb 15, 1887

DW in interview recalls JS using his seer stone to see his travels.

Jan 1888

Isaac Betts provides statement to Arthur Deming on Joseph using a peep-stone for money-digging.

Jan 1888

Joseph Smith could see things through "very clear stone."

Jan 1888

K. A.E. Bell's statement to Arthur Deming on Joseph's "peep-stone" that he used to see "buried treasure."

Jan 1888

JS claimed he had a peep-stone which had an attraction and was called a "Peeker."

Jan 1888

S.F. Anderick, in a statement to Arthur Deming, says that Sarah "Sally" Chase used a seer stone.

Jan 1888

C. R. Stafford reports that he tried to use "peep-stone" unsuccessfully.

Jan 1888

Samuel F. Whitney reports that Elizabeth Ann Whitney had a seer stone.


J. H. Kennedy says that Joseph Jr. could translate the papyri as soon as he saw them.


George Q. Cannon says BOA was translated by inspiration.


BHR recounts discovery and translation of the BOA.

Apr 1888

C.R. Smith reports on on Joshua Stafford and Sarah "Sally" Chase's peep stones.

May 18, 1888

WW consecrates the seer stone of JS.

Aug 19, 1888

Orson F. Whitney uses BoA in discussion on "day" vs. "time" in Creation.

Nov 10, 1888

WH tells LEO that JS had stones, offers account of plates.

Aug 2, 1889

Howard Coray witnessed JS translate with "the Seer's stone."

Aug 2, 1889

Howard Coray witnessed JS translate with "the Seer's stone."


Wandle Mace recalls in his autobiography seer stones and magic being used by British converts.

Jan 16, 1891

AJ discusses discovery and translation of BOA; talks about its astronomy.

Jan 16, 1891

AJ recounts discovery and translation of BOA; discusses its astronomy.

Feb 21, 1893

JET examines stone for "unusual values."

Jun 25, 1893

The New York Herald prints account from unknown source of the "Peep stone" being found while Joseph was digging well; used for revelations and finding things.

Aug 12, 1894

Orson F. Whitney delivers discourse, cites BOA on pre-existence.

Nov 10, 1894

CDE discusses Abraham's vision in the BOA; says the U&T was an "instrument" like a telescope.


BHR recounts translation of BOA; discusses the cosmology of the text; argues it is evidence that JS was a prophet.

Apr 7, 1895

George Q. Cannon disusses BOA teaching on the gradation of spirits and stars.

Jul 31, 1897

Foster W. Jones says Henry Tressler saw "rolls of papyrus" that BOA was translated from.

Aug 19, 1901

DEN summarizes lecture given by MT, who uses BoA to show JS was a true prophet.

Oct 17, 1903

DEN reprints a report by FMA about visiting Nauvoo, seeing BOA manuscript with hieroglyphic characters in the margins.

Apr 1904

BHR discusses loss of BOA papyrus, relates to the BOM plates being given back to Moroni.


JHE gives overview of coming forth of BOA, says text was "reveal[ed] to the world" by JS.

Jun 29, 1905

William Smith provides a late (1905) description of Joseph's "peeping stone."


Thomas Kelly Cheyne places the use of the Urim and Thummim in the context of divination.

Jul 28, 1910

C. C. A. Christensen recounts discovery and translation of Book of Abraham for Danish LDS periodical.

Dec 1910

Levi Edgar Young recounts history of BOA, says it was translated by inspiration.

Jan 1911

Isaac Ball recounts translation of the Book of Abraham for young women LDS.


George F. Gibbs mentions one of Brigham Young's daughters having a stone.


OFW cites BOA in discussion of time difference and fall of Adam.

Jan 1922

Jerusha Walker Blanchard says "roll of papyrus" was source of BOA.

Dec 8, 1924

DN paraphrases lecture by Jean Capart on the BoA and facsimiles; says BOA is vindicated by ancient Egyptian knowledge of astronomy.


LRD reports that JS found white stone at well, used it for tricks and treasure.

Feb 1929

Janne M. Sjodahl recounts translation of BOA for LDS youth.

May 1929

JEH recounts BOA translation; defends BOA's inspiration.

Mar 30, 1933

BHR examines JS's seer stone.

Dec 30, 1934

Richard M. Robinson records that he was shown seer stone by Lorenzo Snow.


N. B. Lundwall reprints unsourced claim that Jonathan Crosby said books of Moses, Enoch also found with mummies.

Apr 1, 1937

ER's vision and retrieval of a seer stone.


Alan Gardiner explains phrase "in the hand of" in ancient Egyptian.


Elaine Mullins describes Elias Pulsipher's seer stone; says Joseph examined it.

Mar 1968

Hugh W. Nibley cites sources saying JS put mental study into translation of BOA.


Hugh W. Nibley explains significance of "by his own hand" in BOA header.


CMH connects Kolob and cites BOA with astronomical symbolism on the Salt Lake Temple.

Jul 1988

MDR answers questions about the JS Papyri and Book of Abraham in the Ensign.

Jul 1992

Gee argues for authentic ancient elements in Joseph Smith's explanations to the BOA facsimiles.

Jan 1994

Peterson argues for historicity of BOA and authenticity of JS's explanations of the facsimiles.


James Hoch explains meaning of Egyptian idiom "by the hand of."


D. Michael Quinn discusses the folklore of Joseph's green stone.


Lorenzo Saunders recalled how Sally Chase had a seer stone.


James R. Harris recounts anecdote of Preston Nibley that he heard Joseph F. Smith remember seeing the papyri, describes a long roll.


Walton et al. provide a scholarly overview of ancient divination.


Scholarly overview of casting lots in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible.


Historian Ashurst-McGee perspective on Joseph's progression from village seer to prophet.


CES manual discusses BOA translation.


Jeremiah Unterman describes the use of the Urim and Thummim in the Bible.


Kerry Muhlestein discusses the significance of the BOA Header.


Bible chronology chart in 2013 LDS edition of the Bible.


2013 official text of the BOA.


Introduction to the 2013 official edition of the POGP.

Jul 2014

Gospel Topics essay on the BOA.

Oct 2015

Richard Turley et al. wrote about how Joseph used a seer stone.

Oct 23, 2015

Church Newsroom lists original dates of publication of Gospel Topics essays; BOA essay published on July 8, 2014.


Michael Hubbard MacKay and Nicholas J. Frederick on the claims of people to be in possession of alleged Page stone.


Michael Hubbard MacKay and Nicholas J. Frederick offer scholarly background on folk magic.


Kerry Muhlestein and Megan Hansen give proposed reconstruction of translation timeline of the Book of Abraham.


John Gee proposes reconstruction of the timeline of the translation of the Book of Abraham.


JG gives overview of the Book of Breathings text.


Michael D. Rhodes gives overview of Book of the Dead for LDS readers.


JSP editors discuss marginal characters in BOA manuscript margins.


Gee overviews the BOA Facsimiles in LDS reference work.

Apr 12, 2018

Christopher Kirkland discusses the geology of Joseph Smith's brown seer stone.


John Gee examines literary titles in ancient Egypt; shows that "by/of the hand" was an idiom used in literary titles in ancient Egyptian texts to denote authorship.


Joseph Smith Papers description of Seer Stones and seeing things not visible to the natural eye.


Joseph Smith Papers website provides photos of brown seer stone.


Joseph Smith Papers website provides a brief scholarly overview of the Urim & Thummim.


The Joseph Smith Papers editors reconstruct a timeline of the translation of the Book of Abraham.


JSP notes marginal characters in BOA manuscripts, says they come from papyri and other unknown sources.


JSP notes the marginal characters in BOA manuscripts, note that some of them come from the Grammar and Alphabet documents.