Latter-day Saints and Polygamy

345 Primary Sources

50 - 100 AD

Josephus mentions Herod's polygamous marriages.


Ether 1:40–41 and 6:20 in the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon.

Aug 1835

1835 D&C declares that the Church believes in monogamy.


Ether 1:40–41 and 6:20 in the Kirtland 1837 edition of the Book of Mormon describe the families of Jared and the Brother of Jared.

Jul 27, 1842

JS receives a revelation to be sealed to SAW.

Sep 7, 1842

Joseph discusses Malachi 4 and Elijah and the importance of a welding link/sealing between fathers and children.

Jul 12, 1843

Joseph C. Kingsbury manuscript copy of D&C 132.

Jul 12, 1843

JS's transcript of D&C 132, stating that we "must and Shall abide the law or [w]e Shall be damned."

Mar 10, 1844

WW records JS teaching "seal all you can."

1846 - 1901

Zina D. Young recalls her conversion to the doctrine of "celestial marriag."

Jul 24, 1846

Woodruff records council meeting; resolved that sealings are only authorized by the president of the Church or those he designates.

Dec 30, 1851

Jedediah Grant explained to Thomas Kane that polygamy was necessary because there were more women than men.


The 1852 Utah territorial divorce law allows both men and women to initiate divorce proceedings for several reasons including impotence, drunkenness, neglect, and abandonment.

Aug 29, 1852

Orson Pratt announces the practice of plural marriage among the Latter-day Saints.

Aug 29, 1852

O. Pratt officially introduces polygamy to the public.

Aug 29, 1852

OP maintains that plural marriage is essential to salvation.

Sep 18, 1852

Deseret News publishes conference minutes noting Pratt's announcement of plural marriage.

Jan 1853

Orson Pratt argues for plural marriage on the basis that the biblical patriarchs practiced it, and that JS received revelation authorizing it.


Orson Spencer argues from the Bible that God permits plural marriage.

Jan 1853

Orson Pratt publishes the text of D&C 132 in The Seer.

1853 - 1854

Richard Ballantyne cites Old Testament scripture to justify polygamy.

Feb 1853

Orson Pratt explains authorization is needed to enter plural marriage.

Feb 1853

Orson Pratt publishes the text of the plural marriage sealing ceremony.

Jul 1853

Orson Pratt discusses the plural marriages of David and Solomon.

Aug 1853

Orson Pratt argues that polygamy would eliminate sexual vices.

Oct 1853

Orson Pratt argues that Jesus was a polygamist.

Nov 30, 1853

OP maintains that plural marriage is required for salvation.

Nov 30, 1853

OP maintains that plural marriage exists in eternity.


Johnson gives reasons for why the Saints practice polygamy; cites scripture and argues it solves social ills like prostitution.


Belinda Pratt defends polygamy; cites scriptural support for its practice.


Adam (God per "Adam-God") brought one of his wives into Eden with him (Eve).

Jun 27, 1854

John Taylor recalls being introduced to plural marriage along with Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball in the summer of 1841.

Mar 18, 1855

Orson Hyde maintains that Jesus was polygamist, had children.


Brigham says that only those faithful to their priesthood can enter plural marriage.


Parley P. Pratt provides scriptural arguments for polygamy.

Apr 15, 1856

WW records BY commenting on D&C 132.

Feb 1, 1857

Joseph Harker, bishop of Elijah Allen, requests permission from Brigham Young for Allen to take a plural wife.

Aug 29, 1857

JT says Heavenly Mother is one of the "queens of heaven."

Aug 29, 1857

JT maintains that spirits came from plural marriage relationships.


John W. Gunnison reported in his book that Latter-day Saints practiced polygamy to account for population differences between men and women.

Feb 13, 1860

Brigham rejects a request from Peter Shirts to take another plural wife.

Jun 1860

Patty Bartlett Sessions recalls her and David Sessions's conversion to the Church.

Jul 1, 1862

Text of the 1862 Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act.

Aug 6, 1862

BY maintains plural marriage is required for eternal salvation.

Aug 19, 1866

BY says that those who do not practice polygamy in their heart, nor in actuality, will "come short."

Aug 19, 1866

Brigham Young states that only those who practice plural marriage become gods.

Jul 29, 1868

JMB was sealed to various female relatives in 1843.

Jun 26, 1869

Noble states that JS taught him about plural marriage in the fall of 1840; says JS was commanded to practice it by an angel.

Oct 7, 1869

Orson Pratt says that Joseph said polygamy was "a true principle" in 1831.

1870 - 1890

George Q. Cannon says plural marriage is a divinely-ordained way for men to have their sexual urges fulfilled.

Feb 12, 1870

WW records BY saying non-polygamists will be in CK.

Aug 31, 1871

BY observes that a failure to practice plural marriage will lead to singleness in the celestial kingdom.

Sep 24, 1871

BY maintains men must embrace celestial marriage in their heart to be justified.


Fanny Stenhouse records her hatred for polygamy and disillusionment of her faith.

Sep 26, 1872

Eliza R. Snow bears testimony of plural marriage in Relief Society meeting.

Feb 10, 1873

Multiple GAs denounce polygamy as necessary for CK.


George A. Smith speaks on polygamy, gives reasons for its practice.


Orson Pratt cites scriptural justification for plural marriage.


George Q. Cannon speaks on plural marriage, gives reasons for why it is practiced.


Ann Eliza Webb voices her loathing of plural marriage and expresses her unhappiness as a former plural wife.


First canonical edition of D&C 132 in the 1876 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants.


Emma Hale Smith commanded to practice plural marriage.


Eliza Partridge recalls her introduction and conversion to plural marriage.

Mar 23, 1877

Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner swears affidavit affirming her plural marriage to Joseph Smith.


Full text of decision in Reynolds v. United States declaring that polygamy is not protected by the First Amendment.


The 1878 Pearl of Great Price contains the text of D&C 132.

Jul 7, 1878

JFS comments on how much more beneficial plural marriage is in eternity than monogamy.

Jul 7, 1878

Joseph Fielding Smith teaches that plural marriage is required for exaltation.

Dec 16, 1878

Orson Pratt quotes Lyman Johnson as saying that Smith knew about plural marriage in 1831.


1879 Book of Mormon Ether 1:40–41 speaks of the brother of Jared's "families."


Ether 7:1–2 in the 1879 Book of Mormon.

1880 - 1888

Lucy Walker recounts her introduction to plural marriage.


Marinda Nancy Johnson recalls Joseph Smith introducing her to plural marriage.

Oct 31, 1880

GQC maintains that "willingness" to practice polygamy is necessary for salvation.

Oct 31, 1880

George Q. Cannon maintains that all must obey law of celestial marriage to be exalted.

Mar 30, 1881

Helen Mark Kimball Whitney recalls her marriage to Joseph.

Mar 30, 1881

Helen Mar Kimball Whitney recalls her introduction to plural marriage and sealing to Joseph Smith in late autobiography.

Apr 1, 1881

Presendia Lathrop Huntington Buell briefly mentions her sealing to Joseph and feelings on plural marriage.

Jun 15, 1881

Romania Pratt argues that plural marriage allows men more opportunities for sex, which they need but which women don't.

Sep 1881

John C. Kimball advanced the idea in Anti-Polygamy Standard that polygamy was to offer women homes.

Oct 15, 1881

Helen Mark Kimball Whiney relays Vilate Kimball's vision of polygamy.

Nov 1, 1881

Helen Mar Kimball recalls hearing Joseph say plural marriage would be a test of faith.


Helen Mar Kimball testifies that God commanded plural marriage.


John Taylor provides a summary statement of the LDS view of marriage in the 1880s; emphasizes that plural marriage is the divinely ordained means for the human race to be propagated.


Helen Mar Kimball argues that polygamy would solve societal ills and give all women a chance to be married.


Helen Mar Kimball appeals to the Bible to justify plural marriage.


Helen Mar Kimball Whitney published book defending plural marriage and Joseph Smith as a prophet.

Apr 9, 1882

JT envisions a future in eternity reigning with his wives.


Erastus Snow relates what Joseph told him about contents in the 116 pages.

Mar 3, 1883

Joseph F. Smith maintains that plural marriage is required for exaltation.

Jul 22, 1883

Woodruff reports Joseph F. Smith teaching Jesus was a polygamist.

Aug 1, 1883

Almera Johnson swears affidavit affirming her status as a plural wife of Joseph.

Sep 3, 1883

Littlefield defends plural marriage in LDS periodical, gives reasons for its practice among the LDS.


Helen Mar Kimball Whitney says that plural marriage was revealed to Joseph in 1831; was commanded by an angel to practice it.


Text of the 1882 Edmunds Act.


Helen Mar Kimball writes the social evils such as abortion aren't practiced in polygamous Utah.


Helen Mar Kimball defends plural marriage as a trial but a blessing to her life.

Jan 13, 1884

George Teasdale declares that polygamy is a "necessity."

Apr 1, 1884

Emily D. P. Young recounts her conversion to plural marriage.

Apr 13, 1885

ERS expresses her love for the doctrine of polygamy.

Apr 13, 1885

Eliza R. Snow recounts her conversion to plural marriage.

Nov 9, 1885

First Presidency (JT and GQC) maintains that plural marriage was "interwoven" with eternal salvation.

1886 - 1911

John W. Taylor copy of the 1886 Taylor revelation.

Jun 1, 1886

WC maintains that JS taught plural marriage was essential to exaltation.

Sep 27, 1886

Typescript copy of Joseph Fielding Smith's copy of John Taylor's 1886 revelation.

Sep 27, 1886

Photographic facsimile of the John Taylor 1886 revelation.

Sep 27, 1886

Photographic reprint of the 1886 Taylor revelation.


Full text of the 1887 Edmunds-Tucker Act.


Rhoda Richards bears testimony of her sealing to Joseph and her faith in him as a prophet.

May 1887

Joseph learned about plural marriage in 1831; Alger is listed as "one of the first plural wives sealed to" Joseph.

Aug 3, 1887

Deseret News announces the death of John Taylor.

Oct 1888

LWK recalls JS saying women would have a choice in eternity.

Oct 1888

Lucy Walker gives firsthand account of her introduction to plural marriage.

Dec 29, 1888

JET maintains that exaltation is only possible through the patriarchal order of marriage.


CWP says plural marriage exists in eternity.

Apr 13, 1889

Deseret News reports Wilford Woodruff sustained as Church president.

Apr 30, 1889

HCC cites JS as maintaining plural marriage is required for eternal life.

Nov 24, 1889

Revelation to Wilford Woodruff dated November 24, 1889.


Bancroft reports hearsay accounts of Joseph being influenced by his Bible revision project to restore plural marriage.


Full text of decision of The Late Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. United States.

Sep 25, 1890

Wilford Woodruff says he issued the manifesto after revelation for the temporal salvation of the Church.

Sep 30, 1890

Heber J. Grant hears John W. Taylor tell the Quorum of the Twelve about his (Taylor's) father's 1886 revelation.

Oct 6, 1890

Official text of Wilford Woodruff's 1890 manifesto ending plural marriage.

Oct 6, 1890

WW releases OD1, officially declaring intentions to submit to anti-polygamy laws.

Nov 14, 1891

GQC maintains that plural marriage only necessary in one's heart for exaltation.

Nov 14, 1891

Wilford Woodruff describes in his speech how government threats catalyzed revelation for the Manifesto.

Dec 19, 1891

FP maintains that they taught plural marriage was necessary for exaltation.


B. H. Roberts describes John Taylor going into hiding in 1885 after passage of the Edmunds Act.


B. H. Roberts' biography of John Taylor records the place of his death.


JCK testifies that OP taught polygamy was unnecessary for exaltation.


BWS denies that JS taught polygamy was necessary for exaltation.


WW denies that JS taught polygamy is necessary for exaltation.


Lucy Walker says Joseph would have made plural marriage public had he lived long enough.


Malissa Lott affirms she "roomed" with Joseph Smith "as his wife."


Lucy Walker recounts introduction to plural marriage; bears testimony of its divine origin.


Emily D. P. Young affirms she had "carnal intercourse" with Joseph Smith.

Apr 1, 1892

Abraham H. Cannon records that in quorum meeting John W. Taylor mentioned his father's revelation.

Jan 4, 1893

Text of Benjamin Harrison's amnesty decree for polygamists (1893).


1895 draft of the Utah State Constitution includes outlawing polygamy.

Jan 12, 1895

Zina D. Young recalls hearing from Joseph how an angel with a drawn sword commanded him to practice plural marriage.


George Reynolds argues that Amulek was a polygamist.

Jan 27, 1899

EDPY says that she accepts the "pure and sacred principle" of polygamy.

Jan 27, 1899

Emily D. P. Young writes letter explaining her marriage to Joseph and testimony of plural marriage.


A. Jenson records A. Johnson endorsing the principle of plural marriage.

Jan 8, 1900

Lorenzo Snow reaffirms the Church's prohibition on polygamy.

Jan 28, 1902

FP says spouses are free to choose their spouse in afterlife.

Dec 7, 1902

Lucy Walker swears affidvait to being a plural wife of Joseph Smith and bears her testimony of plural marriage.

Dec 17, 1902

LW wrote that she had a testimony of the doctrine and principle of polygamy.

Mar 2, 1904

JFS says plural marriage is not essential to be member in good standing.

Apr 6, 1904

JFS releases 1904 Manifesto ending plural marriage definitively.

Apr 20, 1904

Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner recounts her introduction to plural marriage; affirms JS told her an angel appeared to him and commanded him to begin the practice.

May 6, 1904

Text of the "Second Manifesto" by Joseph F. Smith.


Joseph Fielding Smith makes semantic distinction between "polygamy" and celestial marriage.


Joseph Fielding Smith publishes work documenting Joseph Smith's plural wives known by 1905.

Jan 11, 1905

ZDHJ says that she will be married to JS for eternity.

Apr 14, 1905

Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner recalls being introduced to plural marriage; affirms that Joseph told her an angel appeared to him multiple times to command he practice it.

Dec 1905

Lucy Walker publishes her testimony of Joseph's prophetic qualities.


Ether 1:16 (LDS Ether 1:41) RLDS 1908 edition of the Book of Mormon uses the singular "family" for the Brother of Jared.


B.H. Roberts states that the revelation on plural marriage was received in 1831.

Oct 6, 1909

Walter W. Smith explains textual change to Ether 1:40–41 in RLDS authorized version.

Feb 22, 1911 - Mar 1, 1911

Reprint of minutes of membership trial of John W. Taylor; mentions the quorum discussion around the 1886 Taylor revelation.

Feb 22, 1911 - Mar 1, 1911

Reprint of minutes of membership trial of John W. Taylor; mentions the quorum discussion around the 1886 Taylor revelation.

Apr 1911

First Presidency in 1911 reaffirms the prohibition on plural marriage in the Church.


Osborn J. P. Widtsoe writes that Joseph was receiving "revelations" of plural/eternal marriage as early as 1831.

Sep 1, 1912

Charles W. Penrose writes on Jesus being married, eternal polygamy, and exaltation.

Aug 1, 1915

Nathaniel Baldwin hears of the John Taylor revelation at a fundamentalist meeting.


Walter W. Smith, RLDS historian, explains textual changes in the 1908 authorized version of the Book of Mormon.

Apr 6, 1921

Heber J. Grant disavows the practice of plural marriage in the Church; warns that excommunication will befall those who perform or practice it.

Mar 12, 1922

Joseph W. Musser records account of the 1886 Taylor revelation and copies it in his journal.


Broadbent publishes the Taylor revelation circa 1927.

Mar 1932

Mary Jane McCleve Meeks recalls marrying her 61 year old husband when she was 16.

Jun 17, 1933

First Presidency (Heber J. Grant, Anthony W. Ivins, J. Reuben Clark) publish official statement denouncing the practice of plural marriage in the Church.

Jul 18, 1933

Memorandum from J. Reuben Clark explaining how the First Presidency came in possession of the Taylor Revelation.


Reprint of the 1886 Taylor revelation circa 1934.

Sep 1, 1934

Douglas M. Todd, Sr. records an account of how the Taylor revelation was returned to the Church.

Dec 31, 1934

Apostle Melvin J. Ballard addresses the Taylor revelation in a 1934 letter.

Oct 1938

Joseph W. Musser in Truth magazine publishes photographic facsimile of the Taylor revelation.

Nov 1940

Joseph W. Musser quotes the Taylor revelation in a 1940 article on John Taylor.


ACT recalls that plural marriage was required.

Feb 1942

Joseph W. Musser reprints the Taylor revelation in a 1942 article.

Apr 11, 1949

J. Reben Clark writes in his diary that polygamy in eternity may be for the purpose of "propagating spirits."


Kimball Young provides examples of younger women waiting after marriage before cohabitating with an older husband.

Feb 3, 1956

David O. McKay says polygamy "is not a principle but a practice" and that the blessings of "the eternity of the marriage covenant" are available to "a man with one wife."

Feb 3, 1956

David O. McKay says polygamy "is not a principle but a practice" and that the blessings of "the eternity of the marriage covenant" are available to "a man with one wife."

Feb 29, 1956

David O. McKay teaches that plural marriage is a "practice" and the blessings and covenants contained in D&C 132 are available in monogamous unions.


Bruce R. McConkie says polygamy will come back after the Second Coming.

Dec 31, 1958

BRM predicts that plural marriage will be revitalized during millennium.

May 8, 1959

David O. McKay maintains women have choice in eternal partners.


Policy in 1960 Handbook of Instructions implies polygamy in eternity with allowance for men to be sealed to multiple women after divorce(s).


Juanita Brooks discusses John D. Lee's marriage to Mary Ann Williams.

Mar 17, 1963

Joseph Fielding Smith annotates a copy of a letter to him where he indicates his belief that Jesus was married.


First Presidency Letter of 1914 reaffirms ban on plural marriage in the Church.


Ludlow argues that the Jaredites practiced polygamy.


Kenneth L. Cannon II writes about post-Manifesto polygamy among LDS leaders.


Eugene E. Campbell and Bruce L. Campbell discuss divorce practices among LDS polygamists.

Jun 4, 1979

Samuel W. Taylor discusses his grandfather's 1886 revelation.

Oct 1979

Spencer W. Kimball teaches about the role of women in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.


Annie Clark Tanner records ambivalent attitudes toward polygamy in her autobiography.


Larry Logue reviews plural marriage data from St. George between 1860–1880.


D. Michael Quinn writes on the history of post-manifesto polygamy.


Duncan M. McAllister maintains that monogamy saves as much as plural marriage.

Apr 1985

DMQ offers a full analysis of post-Manifesto plural marriage.


Jessie Embry reviews the age distribution of plural wives in Utah.


Eugene E. Campbell cites letters from Brigham Young urging younger wives mature before bearing children.

Mar 1989

Elden J. Watson discusses the 1886 John Taylor revelation; disputes the Fundamentalist reading of the text.


Lee Bean reports early Utah demographic statistics about polygamy using the Utah Population Database.


John A. Tvedtnes argues that Alma 10:11 is a reference to Amulek's plural wives.


Hardy writes on post-Manifesto polygamy; documents approximately 220 cases of plural marriage contracted between 1890–1904.


The "new and everlasting covenant" is the sum of all covenants and ordinances in the gospel of Jesus Christ.


Thomas G. Alexander reviews Wilford Woodruff's marriage to Emma Smith Woodruff.

Sep 23, 1995

Text of "The Family: A Proclamation to the World" issued by the Church (September 1995).


Irwin Altman and Joseph Ginat write on the demographics of Mormon polygamy and contemporary Mormon fundamentalism.


Sorenson reasons that some of Lehi's children may have polygamously married.

Sep 1998

1998 Church handbook 1 states that deceased women can be posthumously sealed to all deceased men to whom she was married.

Sep 8, 1998

Gordon B. Hinckley replies to questions about fundamentalists practicing polygamy in modern times and states "I condemn it, yes, as a practice, because I think it is not doctrinal."

Oct 1998

Gordon B. Hinckley reaffirms that polygamy is not permitted in the Church.

Oct 9, 1998

Cala Byram reports Gordon B. Hinckley condemning polygamy.

Nov 1998

GBH says the modern Church does not practice polygamy.


Volf reviews demographics of 19th century Mormon polygamy.


Jon L. Berquist discusses biblical polygyny.


Kathryn Daynes reports that temple-endowed women outnumbered men in 1850-1880 Utah.


Russell Fuller discusses the practice of polygamy in ancient Israel.


Kathryn M. Daynes reviews the age distribution of plural wives in Utah.


Drury comments on 1 Tim 3, says the passage does not appear to prohibit polygamy.


Richard Lyman Bushman on Joseph's polygamy; He married 3 in 1841; 11 in 1842 and 17 in 1843.


Al-Krenawi et al. report their findings on attitudes towards polygamy in traditional Arab communities in the Negev.

Feb 17, 2006

First Presidency in 2006 states those practicing polygamy will be excommunicated.

May 17, 2006

Deseret News quotes Church spokesman on the marriage status of Jesus.


Gardner observes that based on Ether 7:1–2, Orihah the Jaredite king was probably a polygamist.


Brant Gardner argues based on Ether 14:1–2 that the Jaredites were probably polygamists.


Brant A. Gardner argues the Jaredites probably were polygamists based on details found in Ether 6:14–16.

Jul 20, 2007

Dallin H. Oaks states "I don't know" about eternal polygamy.


Miriam Koktvedgaard Zeitzen reviews the different types of polygamous arrangements.

Jun 9, 2008

Daynes reports on demographics in Manti that show exceptionally high marital rates.


Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and Christopher C. Jones review the details of John Taylor's 1886 revelation, express skepticism over the claimed circumstances of its receipt.


Christie S. Warren discusses Islamic polygyny.


Thom Brooks argues that polygamy is inherently sexist and introduces inegalitarian gender dynamics.


Michael Coogan reviews polygamy in the Bible; says Mormons were and are correct to see a biblical justification for the practice.


Walter Scheidel reviews Greco-Roman attitudes towards monogamy and polygamy.

Oct 2011

M. Russell Ballard disavows Mormon fundamentalist groups.


Gregg Strauss argues that certain models of polygamy can eliminate inequality.


Davis Bitton and Val Lambson review demographics of 19th century Mormon polygamy; conclude between 15–20% of Mormon men and 25–30% of Mormon women practiced it.


Bonnie Ricks states that the women she interviewed uniformly felt they were second-class citizens as women in the Church.


Jacob 2:28–32 says the Lord will command people to practice polygamy at specific times.


Clark LeRay Herlin documents approximately 250 post-manifesto plural marriages between 1890 and 1904.


2013 study finds lower self-esteem reported in Syrian women practicing polygamy.


Miller and Karkazis note the problem of "lost boys" in one polygamist community.


In Acts 15, Paul discusses the question of circumcision (KJV LDS 2013 New Testament).


Acts 10 KJV in LDS 2013 New Testament.

2013 - 2015

COJCLDS issues commentary on the foundation of Heavenly Mother doctrine.


David in the Old Testament is depicted as taking multiple wives.


Jacob says God commanded Lehi to practice monogamy.


Moses 5:43–55 in the current (2013) edition of the standard works.


KJV 1 Tim 3:2, 12 instructs church leaders to be the husband of one wife.


Elkanah the father of Samuel in the Old Testament is depicted as having two wives.


Ether 7:1–2 in the 2013 edition of the Book of Mormon.


KJV 2 Sam 12:7–8 depicts Nathan the prophet as saying God gave David plural wives.


Amulek speaks of his "women," suggesting a plurality of wives.


Jacob 2:28–32 says the Lord will command people to practice polygamy at specific times.


Ether 10:5 depicts the wicked Riplakish as a polygamist.


KJV Exodus 21:7–11 regulates plural marriage.


2 Chronicles 11:18–23 KJV depicts king Rehoboam as a polygamist.


2 Chronicles 24:1–3 KJV depicts king Joash as having two wives.


Esau in the Old Testament is portrayed as having multiple wives.


Ether 1:40–41 and Ether 6:20 in the 2013 Book of Mormon describe the families of Jared and the Brother of Jared.


David is depicted in the Old Testament as having multiple wives.


1 Chronicles 2:18–20, 46–48 depicts Caleb as a polygamist.


1 Chronicles 4:1–8 mentions Ashur, a descendant of Judah, who had two wives.


Opening chapter of book of Jacob in the Book of Mormon says the Nephites practiced polygamy.


KJV Genesis 4:19 depicts Lamech as the first polygamist.


KJV Leviticus 18:17–18 regulates polygamy.


Wicked king Noah in the Book of Mormon is depicted as a polygamist.


2 Chronicles 13:21–22 depicts king Abijah as a polygamist.


Judges 8:29–31 depicts Gideon as a polygamist.


The Old Testament depicts Abraham as having a wife and a concubine.


KJV Deuteronomy 21:15–17 regulates plural marriage among the Israelites.


KJV Titus 1:6-7 appears to indicate bishops must be the husbands of one wife.


Esau in the Old Testament is depicted as marrying multiple wives.


Official Declaration 1 of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.


Solomon is depicted in the Old Testament as having hundreds of wives and concubines.


Jacob/Israel in the Old Testament is depicted as having four wives.


KJV Deuteronomy 17 instructs good kings not to multiply wives unto themselves.


Current canonical (2013) edition of D&C 132.


Esther 1–2 KJV mentions the royal household of the Persian king Ahasuerus; mentions Vashti and Esther as his wives, and a harem with concubines.


KJV Matthew 2 in the LDS standard works.


KJV Genesis 36:9–13 mentions Esau's son Eliphaz and his concubine Timna.


1 Kings 20:1–12 KJV contains detail of Ahab having multiple wives.


Royal Skousen argues that "thy families" at Ether 1:41 is in error; it should read instead "thy family."


Wright and Richardson discuss the "lost boys" of the FLDS.


Lowell C. Bennion discusses the demographics of plural marriage in the 19th century.


Brian C. Hales reviews John Taylor's 1886 revelation.

Apr 2015

Bonnie L. Oscarson defends the Family Proclamation during the April 2015 General Conference.

Nov 11, 2015

Sheri Dew explains why she feels the Church is good and ennobling for women.

Nov 20, 2015

Latter-day Saint blogger Steve Evans does not believe Polygamy was from God.


David P. Barash writes about the evolutionary biological evidence for human disposition towards polygamy.


Skousen argues that Ether 1:41 should read singular "thy family."


Laurel Thatcher Ulrich writes on plural marriage in Utah; notes how it made strong kinship bonds among the women.


WVS comments on purpose of polygamy.


William Victor Smith comments on the primary purpose of polygamy in Joseph's 1844 sermon.

Jan 4, 2018

Neel Burton discusses the pros and cons of polygamy.

Sep 10, 2018

Quentin L. Cook says current Church leaders feel polygamy has accomplished its purpose.


Craig L. Foster reviews evidence of early-age marriage in Utah.


Pearsall discusses how polygamy can easily cause gender inequality among partners.

Dec 29, 2019

Valerie Hudson suggests that the Church has "the most revolutionary and feminist doctrine."


Stephanie Kramer reports Pew research on contemporary polygamy.

Jul 2020

Quentin L. Cook says polygamy accomplished its purpose.


Brittany Chapman Nash reviews the age of polygamous spouses in 19th century Utah.


Bahari et al. find positive and negative mental health outcomes in women and children with polygamy compared to monogamy.


Sabila Naseer et al. sample polygamous marriages in Pakistan, describe positives and negatives associated with the practice.


GT Essay states "the precise nature" of eternal polygamy "is not known."


Church handbook allows for men to be sealed to multiple women in the temple.


Church Newsroom Statement on polygamy and polygyny.


Church handbook allows deceased women to be sealed to multiple men.

Dec 7, 2021

Stephen Cranney calculates historical youth dependency ratios for Utah.

Dec 7, 2021

Stephen Cranney in Times and Seasons calculates historical youth dependency ratios for Utah.

Dec 20, 2021

Stephen Cranney in Times and Seasons presents data on how many women emigrated to pioneer Utah.


Sarah M. S. Pearsall reviews various historical cultures that practiced polygamy.


Joshua M. Sears and Avram R. Shannon discuss the similarities and differences of ancient polygamy and plural marriage in the modern Church.


Pearsall discusses how polygamy introduces inequality in marriage.

Feb 2022

The Church handbook states that a deceased women can be sealed to all men she legally married.

Apr 2022

Dale G. Renlund affirms existence of Heavenly Mother in general conference.


University of Virginia dataset collects 504 men and 1571 women in plural marriages before September 1, 1852.


Encyclopedia Britannica defines polygyny and discusses its positives and negatives.


Church History Topics essay on post-manifesto polygamy.


Brian C. Hales gives an overview of the Apostolic United Brethren or Allred Group.


Encyclopedia Britannica defines "polygamy."


Gospel Topics Essay from the Church discusses post-manifesto polygamy.


Farhan Iqbal describes the practice of polygamy in contemporary Islam.


The Cambridge Dictionary defines "polygamy."


Brian C. Hales reviews the FLDS Church.


Joshua M. Sears argues that Josephus downplayed biblical polygamy for his Greco-Roman audience.


Church handbook policy disallows polygamous marriages in meetinghouses.


Church handbook policy on plural marriage.


Church handbook defines the law of chastity.


Church handbook explains sealing policies of the Church.


Church statement disavows polygamous groups.


US Senate website summarizes the Smoot Case of 1907.


Genealogical entry for Clarissa Caroline Decker on FamilySearch includes her 1844 marriage to Brigham Young.


Genealogical entry for Sarah Ephramina Jensen on FamilySearch mentions her 1871 marriage to Lorenzo Snow.


Genealogical entry for Mary Van Cott on FamilySearch includes her 1868 marriage to Brigham Young.


LDS Church History Topics essay summarizes the Reed Smoot Hearings.


Article III of the Utah State Constitution.


Biographical entry for Sarah Delight Stocking on the Wilford Woodruff Papers website.


Biographical entry for Eudora Lovina Young Dunford Woodruff Hagen on the Wilford Woodruff papers website.


Genealogical entry for Josephine Elizabeth Roueche on FamilySearch includes her 1886 marriage to John Taylor.


Biographical entry for Phoebe Amelia Woodruff Snow on the Wilford Woodruff papers website.

Jan 23, 2023

Jana Reiss describes the ecclesiastical structure of the Church as patriarchal, as well as the perceived lack of power and decision-making for women in the Church.