Anachronisms in the Book of Mormon

1278 Primary Sources

Date
Summary
262 BC

Callimachus, in "Hymn III: To Artemis" describes deer being used to draw a chariot.

800 - 800 AD

Mesoamerican depiction of prisoners being tied together by rope.

1220 - 1240

Barnard Schudder's translation of the 13th-century Icelandic "Egil's Saga" contains "baptized" and "churches."

1566

Diego de Landa calls the fiber (kapok) of the Ceiba tree "silk."

1599 - 1601

William Shakespeare's Hamlet speaks of death as "the undiscovered country" from which "no traveler returns."

1611

1 Esdras 8:2 in the King James has the proper name "Ezias."

1744

Arthur Dobbs, in 1744, uses "American Oxen" to refer to Beeves (Cow).

1787

William Robertson, in his The History of America (1787) claims that the ancient Mexicans and Peruvians do not merit the title "civilized."

1807

Francesco Saverio Clavigero makes reference to Spanish comparing native fibers to silk.

1812

Henry Weber edition of Arabian Nights published in 1812 contains multiple uses of adieu.

1814

Alexander Von Humboldt reports on his travels in Central and South America; notes that the Incas and Peruvians used a form of cement.

1818

Richard Henry Bonnycastle notes that ancient Mexicans were familiar with cement.

1818

Richard Henry Bonnycastle reports finding large stones in Mexico which were "cemented" together.

1824

John Brown discusses the concept of "Book" in the Bible and antiquity; notes that ancients used to write records on metal such as lead and copper.

1826

Josiah Priest quotes from Hamlet by describing death as "that bourne from whence no traveller returns."

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary defines "flock" as "a company or collection" applied to small animals or fowls of any kind.

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary provides different definitions of "ox," including "male of the bovine genus" as well as both the males and females when speaking of wild animals of this kind.

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary provides different definitions of "steel," such as "Iron combined with a small portion of carbon" and "extreme hardness."

1828

One definition of "rust" from Webster's 1828 dictionary is "any foul matter contracted; as rust on corn or salted meat."

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary provides a series of definitions for "piece."

1828

Webster's 1828 entry for "brass" defines it as "an alloy of copper and zink."

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary provides a number of definitions for "compass" such as "a circular course; a circuit"; a magnetic/mariner's compass is only the fifth definition.

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary's entry for "barge" defines it as a "vessel or boat of state" or a " flat-bottomed vessel of burthen, for loading and unloading ships."

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary defines "sword"; first definition is "an offensive weapon" that is used "either for thrusting or cutting."

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary defines "viol" as "A stringed musical instrument, of the same form as the violin, but larger."

1828

Websters's 1828 dictionary defines "cimiter" as "a short sword with a convex edge or recurvated point."

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary has an entry for "church"; defines it both as a building as well as collective body of people.

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary has an entry for "synagogue"; definitions include "a congregation or assembly of Jews" and a "house appropriated to the religious worship of the Jews."

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary contains "raca," a word adopted from the Aramaic language.

1828

Webster's 1828 Dictionary has an entry for "Adieu"; defines it as "farewell" or "commendation to the care of God."

1828

Webster's 1828 Dictionary contains "Bruit," a word of French origin that has the meaning of "Report; rumor; fame."

1828

Webster's 1828 dictionary contains "Mammon" as a word adopted into the English language.

1830

The 1830 Book of Mormon lacks the later interpretive gloss "or, out of the waters of baptism" in its quote of Isaiah 48:1.

Feb 7, 1831

Alexander Campell, in Delusions (1831) argues that the Book of Mormon contains a series of anachronisms, such as 19th-century theological discussions (e.g., infant baptism).

1834

E. D. Howe critiques the Book of Mormon for its reference to weapons such as javelins, spears, and slings.

1834

E. D. Howe argues that the reference to Laban's steel sword is an anachronism.

May 5, 1837

Critic of the Church writing under the name "Z—a" states that the Book of Mormon contains anachronistic references to gunpowder, the mariner's compass, and quotes from Shakespeare.

May 5, 1837

Critic of the Church writing under the name "Z—a" states that the Book of Mormon contains anachronistic references to gunpowder, the mariner's compass, and quotes from Shakespeare.

1839

H. Stevenson, writing in 1839, argues that the animals mentioned in the New World in Book of Mormon shows the text to be "a complete fiction."

1840

The Bible Christian argues the reference to windows in Ether 2 is anachronistic.

1841

Charles Blancher Thompson reproduces the writings of Josiah Priest on fortifications in ancient America; argues that they match the description of fortifications in the Book of Mormon.

1841

John Lloyd Stephens book, Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan, introduces English readers to the Maya ruins of Mesoamerica.

Jan 6, 1844

Udney H. Jacob queries Joseph Smith concerning alleged anachronisms such as pre-exilic knowledge of crucifixion and the concept of an infinite atonement.

Jun 7, 1844

Robert D. Foster, in a letter to Joseph Smith (June 1844) uses "adieu."

1847

Joseph Leidy, in 1847, notes that horses were known to the New World; notes that "the remains are by no means unfrequent."

1850

Gulielmi Greenfield glosses Αποτασσομαι as "bid adieu".

1854

Emilius Guers lists the use of "Alpha," "Omega," "Churches" "High Priests," and "Paradise" in the Book of Mormon as being anachronistic terms.

1857

John Hyde argues against the antiquity of the Book of Mormon based on the purported use of metal plates in antiquity.

1857

Samuel Hawthornthwaite says "cimeters" in the Book of Mormon are an anachronism.

Dec 6, 1866

Orson Pratt discusses recent discoveries in the New World and their relationship to the animals referenced in the Book of Ether.

1870

C. Staniland Wake reports on settlers calling the boomerang a wooden sword.

1872

Robert W. Shufeldt reports on the presence of pearl-oysters along the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.

May 1874

O. C. Marsh argues that horses existed in the New World before the arrival of the Spanish.

Aug 1881

Moses Thatcher discusses the presence of horses elephants, asses, oxen, and glass in the Book of Mormon and in light of New World discoveries.

Feb 12, 1884 - Mar 8, 1884

Clark Braden argues that Laban's steel sword is an anachronism in the volume; attributes this mistake to Sidney Rigdon.

Feb 12, 1884 - Mar 8, 1884

Clark Braden criticizes the mention of "glass" in the Book of Mormon.

Feb 12, 1884 - Mar 8, 1884

Clark Braden criticizes the Book of Mormon for its heliocentrism.

1885

Daniel G. Brinton notes that the Post-Classic highland Maya of Guatemala worked metals and iron "in a variety of decorative manners."

1887

Martin Thomas Lamb claims that barley and coins were unknown in the Americas during Book of Mormon times.

1887

Martin Thomas Lamb writes that the gold plates, or any metal plates referenced in the Book of Mormon, never existed in antiquity.

1887

Martin Thomas Lamb claims that the Book of Mormon's references to iron and steel in the New World are anachronisms.

1887

Martin Thomas Lamb claims that the Book of Mormon contains modern words that are anachronisms, such as such as "faculties," "Synagogue," "Bible," and the proper name "Sam."

1887

Martin Thomas Lamb argues that the depiction of the religion in Central America in the Book of Mormon is anachronistic and historically inaccurate.

1887

Martin Thomas Lamb claims that the Book of Mormon contains modern words that are anachronisms, such as such as "faculties," "Synagogue," "Bible," and the proper name "Sam."

1888

Désiré Charnay calls wheeled figurines discovered in Mexico as "chariots."

Sep 15, 1890

George Q. Cannon discusses the alleged presence of Shakespeare in the Book of Mormon.

1899

Lu B. Cake argues that the use of Egyptian by Hebrews to be a historical problem with the Book of Mormon; claims that Hebrews did not use metal plates for their Scriptures.

1899

Anonymous historian notes how white settlers thought that the boomerang was a wooden sword.

1899

Lu B. Cake argues that the contents of the Brass Plates contradicts the narrative in 2 Kings 22 concerning the rediscovery of the book of Deuteronomy.

1899

Lu B. Cake argues that Joseph borrowed from the Old and New Testament, and Shakespeare, when producing the Book of Mormon.

Mar 7, 1901

W. T. Hilton reports on a debate between D. H. Bays (Campbellite) and H. C. Smith (RLDS) on February 1901; notes that RLDS representative pointed to cement in the New World as evidence for the Book of Mormon.

1902

A. H. Parsons (RLDS) argues that the Native Americans and other ancient peoples were familiar with the magnetic compass.

1907

B. H. Roberts responds to the alleged presence of Shakespeare in the Book of Mormon.

Jun 1907

Frederick J. Pack, writing in the Improvement Era in 1907, notes that recent scholarship shows that horses were known in the New World before the arrival of the Spaniards.

1908

Fernando Cortes, in a letter to Charles V, notes that everything in the markets in central America were sold by a kind of measure.

Jul 1909

B. H. Roberts addresses the theory of multiple authorship of Isaiah in 1909: argues that the evidence from the New Testament and Book of Mormon supports the unity of Isaiah.

1910

Charles A. Shook argues that horses and barley are anachronisms in the Book of Mormon; they were not known in the New World until the arrival of the Spanish.

1910

Charles A. Shook criticizes Book of Mormon claims about metallurgy, horses, etc.

1911

John R. Swanton reports a Native American tradition concerning elephants; they were called "long-nosed-spirit."

1912

Emilius Oviatt Randall and Daniel Joseph Ryan discuss the presence of dog remains in the pre-historic site of Baum Village, Ohio.

1912

Emilius Oviatt Randall and Daniel Joseph Ryan, writing in 1912, argue that Native Americans did not have any alphabet, except for a syllabary invented in the 19th century among the Cherokees.

1912

Theodore Clarke Smith, when comparing the Book of Mormon and the Spalding Manuscript, argues that the use of "adieu" in both volumes are anachronistic.

1913

Thomas Heath summarizes the heliocentric theory of Aristarchus.

1913

Didache 8:2, in its version of the Lord's Prayer, contains a doxology.

1916

Charles A. Shook critiques the Book of Mormon's references to cement and metal working in the New World.

1919

William Henry Holmes discusses wheeled figurines from the New World; uses the term "chariot" to describe them.

1920

Stuart Martin references the alleged quotation from Shakespeare, the Liahona as a mariner's compass, and "steel" as being anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1921

Samuel Rolles Driver and George Buchanan Gray discuss Job 19:24 as a reference to writing on a lead tablet.

1921

Questions from James F. Couch about BOM issues.

Aug 22, 1921

William E. Riter inquires of James E. Talmage about Book of Mormon questions.

Jan 4, 1922

James E. Talmage uses Book of Mormon as evidence for horses in America.

Feb 14, 1922

Heber J. Grant recounts how a man who was courting his wife's cousin critiqued the Book of Mormon for its reference to "cement" in the New World; has noted that cement structures have since been discovered.

May 1922

Janne M. Sjodahl criticizes "higher criticism" of Bible and BOM in Juvenile Instructor.

1923

A. Cowley transcribes and translates a text from Elephantine that speaks of a "Saraiah daughter of Hoshea."

1926

James H. Snowden claims that the Book of Mormon's references to words such as "Gospel," "baptize," barges," and "Churches" are anachronisms; claims Joseph also included KJV errors into the text.

1927

Janne M. Sjodahl in 1927 proposes that Nephi applied Old World names for New World animals (loan shifting) he encountered.

1927

Janne M. Sjodahl discusses the weight of the plates; postulates they were made of a copper alloy and were considerably lighter in weight than plates made only of 23-karat gold.

Apr 1929

Heber J. Grant recollects, during the April 1929 General Conference, a critic claiming that "cement" was an anachronism in the Book of Mormon; predicts that cement will be attested in the then-future.

1937

M. D. Brown argues that the use of "viol" in 2 Nephi 15:12 (Isaiah 5:12) and 2 Nephi 24:11 (Isaiah 14:11) is an anachronism.

1937

John A. Widtsoe and Franklin S. Harris, Jr., discuss the evidence for warfare in the New World prior to the arrival of the Spanish.

1937

John A. Widtsoe and Franklin S. Harris, Jr., discuss the weight and composition of the gold plates.

1937

John A. Widtsoe and Franklin S. Harris, Jr., discuss the evidence for industry among pre-Columbian peoples in the New World.

1937

John A. Widtsoe and Franklin S. Harris, Jr., discuss the use of metal plates for written records in antiquity.

1937

Josiah Hickman in 1937 addresses the evidence for iron and steel in the New World.

1938

Alberto Francisco Pradeau suggests that small gold planchets made by the Aztecs were also used in trade as a form of currency.

Dec 1940

Nelson Glueck reports on the presence of Attic sherds at Elath, indicating trade took place between Greeks and settlements at Elath around the time of Lehi et al.

Apr 1946

Gordon F. Ekholm discusses the discoveries of wheeled toys in pre-Columbian Mexico.

1947

Alan Gardiner translates and discusses an ancient Egyptian onomasticon.

Aug 1947

Beej Averitt and Paul Averitt provides photographic evidence for New World mastodons in The Desert Magazine.

Oct 1949

C. E. Moore discusses the language of the Book of Mormon; argues that Joseph did not include any modern and thereby anachronistic words/concepts in the Book of Mormon.

1950

Whitney R. Cross provides an overview of the Morgan affair and anti-Masonry in New York in the 1800s.

1952

Hugh Nibley argues that the references to bees or honey in the Book of Mormon are in the Old World.

Oct 1952

Ludwell H. Johnson reports on traditions about ancient mastodons and elephants in the New World.

1953

Franklin S. Harris, Jr., discusses the use writing on metal plates in antiquity; presents examples from canonical and non-canonical works (e.g., Isaiah; Maccabees) and other sources.

1953

Franklin S. Harris Jr., addresses some purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon (e.g, alleged quotation from Hamlet in 2 Nephi 1:14; the personal name "Sam").

Mar 1953

Frank Moore Cross Jr. and David Noel Freedman translate the Hebrew ‎קֶֽשֶׁת־נְחוּשָׁ֖ה (KJV: "bow of steel") in 2 Samuel 22:35 as "bow of bronze."

Apr 1953

Cyrus H. Gordon notes that an Ugaritic tablet from 1400 BC where a lunar goddess is called the Ugaritic counterparts of 'almah (young woman) and bethulah (virgin).

1954

Writing in 1954, William Foxwell Albright notes that camels were not attested contemporary with the narratives as found in the books of Genesis and Exodus.

1954

Rose Marie Reid, in a fictitious discussion between a missionary and Jewish investigator, discusses evidence for pre-Christian knowledge of baptism.

May 1954

Richard Pearson Smith discusses the Nephite monetary system in Alma 11; calls the 1-2-4-7 system "an ingenious system."

1956

Sylvanus G. Morley reports that the Maya could calculate the solar year with accuracy similar to modern astronomy.

1956

Sylvanus G. Morley reports on the presence of lime-concrete among the Maya.

1956

Sylvanus G. Morley reports that the Maya achieved a high degree of astronomical accuracy.

1956

Sylvanus G. Morley reports on the presence of human sacrifice among the Maya.

1957

Clayton E. Ray writes on potential for Pre-Columbian horses in Journal of Mammalogy.

1957

Thomas F. O'Dea lists steel and animals as anachronistic; argues against the Book of Mormon based on the Jaredites uses swine "despite the Mosaic Law."

1957

Thomas F. O'Dea critiques the Book of Mormon as reflecting 19th-century revivalism and its knowledge of Christ in pre-Christian times.

1957

Thomas F. O’Dea argues that the Book of Mormon "is wholeheartedly and completely Arminian" in its theology; Moroni 8's rejection of infant baptism is reflective of 19th-century debates.

1957

Thomas F. O’Dea argues that the Book of Mormon reflects the politics and government structures of 19th-century America.

1957

Thomas F. O’Dea argues that the Book of Mormon reflects 19th-century Anti-Masonic sentiment.

1957

Hugh W. Nibley discusses the presence of Greek names (e.g., Timothy) in the Book of Mormon; notes that contact between Syria, Palestine, and the Aegean world has been dated to at least the 14th century BC.

1957

Thomas F. O'Dea argues that Moroni 7 is dependent upon 1 Corinthians 13.

1957

Thomas F. O'Dea claims that the depiction of the "great and abominable Church" in 1 Nephi 13 reflects 19th-century anti-Catholic sentiments.

Oct 1957

Robert E. Longacre reports on a word in Proto-Mixtecan (spoken in Central Mexico c. 1000 BC) for "money" which also meant "bright, shining" and is related to "copper-colored."

Oct 1957

Franklin S. Harris, Jr., in an article in The Instructor, discusses the use of writing on metal plates in antiquity.

1958

A. Starker Leopold discusses the presence of turkeys in the New World before the arrival of the Spanish; turkeys were often used as tribute payment.

1958

Roy Weldon discusses evidence for knowledge of textiles in ancient Central America.

1958

Roy Weldon discusses evidence for metallurgy in ancient Mexico.

1958

Roy Weldon (RLDS) discusses the evidence for astronomy in ancient Mexico.

1959

E. Raymond Hall and Keith R. Kelson discuss the mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis); they range as far south as Mexico.

1959

A. Starker Leopold discusses the bighorn sheep; it is present in parts of northern Mexico.

1959

A. Starker Leopold discusses the presence of the puma, or mountain lion, in Mexico.

1959

A. Starker Leopold discusses the presence of the peccary in Mexico.

1959

Arthur Budvarson claims that the Book of Mormon plagiarizes from the King James Version of the Bible.

May 1959

R. B. Y. Scott discusses the various weights and measurements used in the Bible; includes discussion of weights/measurements for currency among pre-exilic Israelites and other cultures.

Sep 2, 1959

William C. Sturtevant of the Smithsonian Institution writes that the metallurgy and some of the animals in the Book of Mormon are anachronistic to pre-Columbian Central America.

Oct 1959

Eric L. Titus argues that 1 Corinthians is an interpolation to the text of First Corinthians.

1960

Laurette Séjourné discusses the use of "maize" related terms used as descriptors for girls among the Pueblo Indians and related usage of terms among the Aztecs.

1960

Mario Stephen Depillis argues that the Book of Mormon contains anachronistic allusions to Anti-Masonry.

1960

Laurette Séjourné discusses the Aztecan water goddess Chalchiuhtlicue; she is said to free a newborn child from impurity in a "baptismal ceremony."

1961

Ariel L. Crowley discusses the use of writing on metal plates in antiquity.

1961

Sidney B. Sperry discusses the relationship between 1 Corinthians 12-13 and Moroni 7 and 10; argues that Paul and Moroni used a common source that originated from Jesus.

1961

Archibald W. Hunter argues that "faith, hope, and love" is a "Christian triad" that predates 1 Corinthians 13.

Apr 1961

Howard W. Law publishes an article on Yuman vocabulary; notes that words for "dog" and "chicken" have been constructed.

Apr 1961

Robert E. Longacre and René Millon notes that Proto-Mixtecan had a word that could mean "bell" or "metal."

Jul 29, 1961

Hugh Nibley argues that Paul is quoting from a preexisting source in his "Hymn to Charity" (1 Corinthians 13).

1962

Franklin S. Harris, Jr., discusses examples of writing on metal plates from antiquity.

May 1962

Maurice W. Connell discusses "silk" in the Book of Mormon; argues that silk (and silk-like fabrics) were known in the New World prior to the arrival of the Spanish.

1963

Ross T. Christensen discusses the fauna of Mesoamerica during Book of Mormon times.

1963

John L. Sorenson discusses elephants in the Book of Mormon; postulates that mammoths and other Pleistocene-era animals may have survived in Mexico during Book of Mormon times.

1963

John L. Sorenson discusses evidence for traditions about Seer stones/Urim and Thummim among Mesoamericans.

1963

Ross T. Christensen discusses cement among the Maya during Book of Mormon times; the Maya used lime cement, not portland cement.

1963

Alfred L. Bush discusses "brass" in the KJV to translate Hebrew nechosheth (copper); concludes that the Book of Mormon follows the KJV in translating this term as "brass," too.

1963

Pamphlet published by the Church documents examples of the use of writing on metal plates in antiquity.

1963

Ralph Leonard Foster argues that the name "Moroni" is borrowed from the Italian name "Moroni."

1963

A. Melvin McDonald discusses the use of "Bible" in the Book of Mormon; argues that the use of "book" in the KJV is a parallel example of a translator's anachronism.

1964

Gordon H. Fraser lists a number of purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon, such as sheep.

1964

Gordon H. Fraser argues that linen, silk, and sheep are all anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1964

Carl Hugh Jones discusses the Old World groups Lehi et al. would have brought to the New World and the question of the crops's survival in the New World.

1964

Read H. Putnam argues that the plates of Mormon were made of a gold-copper alloy called "tumbaga."

1964

William J. Whalen discusses a number of purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon, such as "barges," "synagogues," "gospel," "Jehovah," and "church."

1964

George Bertram discusses Κραυγή, Κραυγάζω, and related terms which are translated as "hang" and "crucify" in the LXX and Greek New Testament.

1964

Gordon H. Fraser argues that warfare was unknown to the Maya during Book of Mormon times; lists weapons like the bow and arrow, and the chariot, as being anachronisms.

1964

John L. Sorenson argues that the Nephites did not have coins but instead they had weights.

1964

James R. Clark et al. discuss Book of Mormon anachronisms (e.g., coins/weights in Alma 11) during a panel discussion.

1964

Gordon H. Fraser argues that there is no evidence of writing on metal plates in the New World.

1964

Albrecht Oepke discusses the usage of βαπτιζω and its cognates, including its use in the LXX.

1964

Joachim Jeremias discusses Ῥακά and רֵיקָא (KJV: Raca) in the New Testament and contemporary Aramaic literature.

1964

Wesley M. Jones argues that Joseph interacted with the New Testament when composing the Book of Mormon.

1964

William J. Whalen discusses a number of purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon, such as "barges," "synagogues," "gospel," "Jehovah," and "church."

1964

Gordon H. Fraser argues that "churches" and "synagogues" are anachronistic in the Book of Mormon.

1964

Wesley M. Jones argues that Joseph borrowed, in part, from Fox's Book of Martyrs for the narrative of Abinadi's death in the Book of Mormon.

1965

Ralph L. Roys discusses sacrifice among the Maya; dogs and turkeys were sacrificed, as were people.

1965

Ronald Spores notes that bows, arrows, flags, and jewelry (e.g., necklaces) were present among the Zapotecs and Mixtecs.

1965

France W. Scholes and Dave Warren note that copper axes were used as both weapons among the Olmecs; axes made from gold were used as part of barter which continues with the Spanish.

1965

Cyrus H. Gordon transliterates an Ugaritic text concerning the marriage between goddess Nikkal and god Yarah; uses the Ugaritic for "virgin" and "young woman" in parallel to one another.

1965

Ralph L. Roys discusses the presence of temple among the Maya.

1965

Cyrus H. Gordon discusses Ugaritic bšr; defines it as "to get tidings (good or evil)," sometimes in a religious context.

1965

Cyrus H. Gordon provides transliterations of Ugaritic texts (1350-1150 BC) that contain the term "glad tidings" (bšr) being used in religious contexts.

1965

Ignace J. Gelb et al. discuss Assyrian bussurtu as meaning "unexpected tidings (usually good)."

1965

Cyrus H. Gordon notes that vocabulary of Minoan-Eteocretan (pre-Greek language in modern day Cyprus) contains Northwest Semitic words.

May 1965

The Smithsonian Institution releases a statement entitled "Statement Regarding the Book of Mormon" (May 1965).

1966

Bartolomé de las Casas discusses the use of an alcoholic beverage he calls "wine" among the Mexican natives.

1966

Diego de Landa records how the Spanish introduced millet into Yucatan in the 16th century; it is said that it "grows marvellously well."

1966

Diego de Landa discusses the native bees of the Maya and the procedures for making honey.

1966

Michael D. Coe references there being various breeds of dog and also stingless bees among the Maya.

1966

Diego de Landa labels fabrics among the Maya "silk."

1966

Francisco Cervantes de Salazar calls the "macana" a "sabre."

1966

Michael D. Coe writes that the Maya "were obsessed with war"; attested by inscriptions and records of the Conquistadors.

1966

Michael D. Coe discusses knowledge of astronomy among the Maya; notes that Maya knowledge of astronomy reached a level comparable to that of the ancient Babylonians.

1966

Diego de Landa discusses the afterlife among the Maya; notes that they believed in an immortal soul and heaven and hell; no evidence they believed in the future resurrection of the body.

1966

Michael D. Coe mentions how the Maya had various war gods who were venerated by soldiers.

1966

Antonio de Herrera records that baptism was practiced in the Yucatan among the Maya; baptism was performed on children between 3 and 12 years of age and would give them desire to do good.

1966

Diego de Landa records the Maya having a ceremony similar to baptism; the ceremony results in the candidate being "born anew/again."

1967

Leo Deuel notes that horse bones have been found in the New World during the Pleistocene era.

1967

Leo Deuel discusses the presence of writing and records among the Maya.

1967

Matthew Wallrath calls native fiber "wild silk."

1967

Désiré Charnay discusses the discovery of wheeled toys in Mexico; discusses the possibility of hand-carts and carriages among pre-Columbian era Mexicans.

1967

Sidney B. Sperry addresses various purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon, including "Bible" and a heliocentric cosmology.

1967

Sidney B. Sperry addresses Mosiah 3:7 and Jesus bleeding from every pore; argues it is explained by hemathidrosis or hematidrosis.

1967

Byron Cummings discusses the temple at Cuicuilco, Mexico.

1968

Warwick Bray notes that the Aztecs had an alcoholic drink called octli made from the maguey plant.

1968

Warwick Bray addresses books and other documents about Aztecs including the codex.

1968

Warwick Bray discusses the use of forges/furnaces in Postclassic period Mexico; tumbaga was treated to give the appearance of the more precious metal.

1968

Warwick Bray writes that the Mexicans understood the principle of the wheel but only used it for children's pull-along toys, not for transportation.

1968

Warwick Bray discusses the long-range weapons among the Aztecs, such as the bow and atlatl; calls the Macana a "two-handed sword" which was said by Díaz to cut better than Spanish swords.

1968

A. Malamat discusses the chronology for the fall of Jerusalem.

1968

Louis Bouyer discusses the Old Testament and inter-testamental Jewish influences on New Testament eucharistic theology and prayers.

1968

Warwick Bray reports that the Aztecs had a ceremony where an infant was ritually washed, dedicated to a deity, and a prayer was recited to keep them away from evil.

1968

Warwick Bray comments on markets among the Aztecs; some cities had multiple markets.

1968

Robert J. Alden argues that "Lucifer" in Isaiah 14:12 is not a reference to Satan; it is a reference to the "proud but now fallen king of Babylon."

1968

Bezalel Porten translates and reproduces Aramaic Papyri 22 from Elephantine; "Sariah" is listed as a woman's name.

1968

J. N. Washburn argues that Joseph may have used Hamlet as it was part of his vocabulary.

1969

Paul R. Cheesman presents evidence for knowledge of the wheel in Ancient America, including wheeled toys.

1969

Bernardino de Sahagún reports that Aztecan midwives ritually bathed newborn children and invoked a deity to cleanse them.

1970

Wayne Ham lists claimed anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1970

John Eric Sidney Thompson discusses how the Maya called Cortés's horse a tapir.

1970

David S. Hyman discusses cement in the Mexico and Central America; it was introduced more than one thousand years before Old World civilizations produced portland cement.

1970

David S. Hyman discusses examples of cement technology in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica; such technology goes back to the time of the Book of Mormon.

1970

Bill Eyster provides an overview of the early history of the compass.

1971

Hugh C. Cutler and Leonard W. Blake reports on relatives of corn in Mesoamerica, such as teosinte.

1971

Valerius Geist reports on how mountain sheep are more readily tamed by humans than other wild animals.

1971

George F. Carter surveys the evidence for chickens in the Americas before the arrival of the Spanish.

1971

Daniel Randall Beirne discusses the presence of axes in pre-Columbian America.

1971

Yigael Yadin reproduces document from Bar Kohkba that reads "Alma son of Judah/Yehudah" in Aramaic.

1971

G. Lankester Harding notes that the personal name LMN being attested in a pre-Islamic inscription in the North Arabian Lihyanite dialect.

1972

Matthew Roper discusses the influence of the work of John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood on early Latter-day Saint approaches to the Book of Mormon.

1972

Doris Stone discusses the presence of bison in Central America.

1972

Thelma D. Sullivan discusses various weapons used in pre-Columbian America; notes that the natives used round/oval shields.

1975

Richard W. Bulliet discusses camels in Abraham narrative in the book of Genesis; concludes is an anachronism for that time period.

1975

Carl Edwin Armerding discusses the evidence for non-Levitical priests in the pre-exilic era.

1975

Louis Finkelstein argues that the synagogue has its origins in early prophetic institutions predating the exile.

1975

Yohanan Aharoni discusses Arad Inscription 97 (c. 7th century BC); argues it attests "Malachi" as being a genuine proper name, and not a title.

Sep 5, 1975

John B. Carlson discusses the presence and knowledge of the lodestone compass among the Olmecs.

Jan 1976

Lyle Campbell and Terrence Kaufman discuss the presence of words for "metal" among the Olmecs.

1976

Kent V. Flannery references the presence of "High concentrations of magnetite chunks and mirrors fragments" at Oaxaca, Mexico.

1976

Calvin Rensch discusses a word for "money" in Proto-Mixtecan (Central Mexican language, c. 1000 BC); also had the meaning of "bright" and "shining."

1976

Jane W. Pires-Ferreir reports on magnetite ore and magnetite mirrors among the Olmecs.

1976

Kent V. Flannery discusses altars and religious figures in Oaxaca, Mexico.

1976

Fred L. Horton, Jr., in a monograph, discusses traditions concerning Melchizedek in the Bible and extra-biblical literature such as the Dead Sea Scrolls and Josephus.

Jul 1976

Clair C. Patterson reports that ores in ancient times in the Americas were earlier to locate and exploit than in later pre-Spanish times when many surface sources were likely to have been exhausted.

Oct 15, 1976

David Webster reports on pre-Classical era fortifications in Mesoamerica.

1977

B. Beck discusses Hebrew בָּקָר; notes it can refer to various quadrupeds such as "cattle" and "oxen."

1977

Francis Brown et al. discusses the Hebrew term בָּקָר bāqār; it can be be translated to refer to various quadrupeds such as oxen and cows.

1977

Francis Brown et al. define תַּ֫חַשׁ as a kind of leather or skin of animals such as dolphins and sheep.

1977

Francis Brown et al. interprets גִּלָּיוֹן as a reference to "tablets of polished metal."

1977

Francis Brown et al. discuss the meaning of ברך; one definition includes "saying adieu to."

1977

O. Schilling discusses Hebrew "בשׂר" ("gospel"/"glad tidings"/"good news").

1977

John L. Sorenson discusses the documentary hypothesis and the Book of Mormon; argues that the Book of Mormon reflects a close affinity with the Elohist ("E") source in light of modern biblical scholarship.

Oct 1977

Robert Madden et al. make reference to "steeled iron" in the 10th century B.C.

1978

Joachim Jeremias argues that Jesus would have uttered a doxology or "seal" at the end of the Lord's Prayer, even if it is absent in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew.

1979

Carl E. Gustafson et al. discuss the Manis Mastodon site in Washington.

1979

Burr Cartwright Brundage, in a volume on Aztec culture and theology, notes that they were "fascinated by the subject of war," and that it was tied into their religion.

1979

Burr Cartwright Brundage notes that Aztec children received a form of baptism by fire.

1979

Burr Cartwright Brundage notes that the Aztecs performed a baptism of fire in the family hearth on infants four days after their birth.

1979

John R. Krueger compares Book of Mormon names with Biblical names.

1980

Michael D. Coe and Richard A. Diehl report on dog remains among the Olmecs at San Lorenzo.

1980

Michael D. Coe and Richard A. Diehl report on the discovery of a dog bone at San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, dating to the time of the Olmecs.

1980

Michael D. Coe and Richard A. Diehl report on evidence that the Olmecs has the world's very first magnetic compass.

1980

Robert N. Hullinger argues that Joseph is responding to deistic objections to prophecy in Alma 30 and elsewhere in the Book of Mormon.

1980

Michael D. Coe and Richard A. Diehl discusses the various means by which monuments were mutilated and destroyed.

1980

Michael D. Coe and Richard A. Diehl report on a mutilated altar dating to Olmec times.

1980

Michael D. Coe and Richard A. Diehl note that, based on representations in clay and stone, the Olmecs "had magnificent textiles."

1980

Robert F. Smith discusses the Ancient Near Eastern background to the concept of the deceased as a "traveler" and not being able to return from death.

1981

G. T. Harrison argues that Indian Maize was unknown to the Book of Mormon peoples.

1981

Elizabeth S. Wing states that the peccary was known to the Olmecs.

1981

Raphael Patai discusses ancient Jewish seafaring in antiquity.

1981

G. T. Harrison argues that the Book of Mormon's references to cimeters and silk are anachronisms.

1981

John B. Carlson reports on the presence of magnetite among the Olmecs.

1981

Philip Drucker discusses the presence of altars among the Olmecs at La Venta and San Lorenzo.

1981

In a monograph, Paul J. Kobelski discusses ancient traditions concerning the figure of Melchizedek, including 11Q13 from Qumran, Philo, and the Epistle to the Hebrews.

1981

G. T. Harrison argues that the concepts of "faculties" and "immortal souls," and iron-working in the New World, are all anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1981

Joachim Krecher comments on the appearance of al6 in the Eblaite language and texts.

1981

Wesley P. Walters argues that 1 Nephi 22 and 2 Nephi 26 anachronistically borrows material from the book of Malachi.

1981

G. T. Harrison argues that the use of "Red Sea" instead of "Reed Sea" is an example of a KJV error in the Book of Mormon.

1981

John A. Tvedtnes discusses 2 Nephi 8:19 substituting "things" with "sons" in the text of Isaiah 51:19; notes that this is the result of Joseph Smith interacting with the italics of the King James Bible.

1981

In his 1981 MA Thesis, Wesley P. Walters argues that the use of the Bible in the Book of Mormon demonstrates it is a 19th-century production, not a translation of an ancient text.

1982

Carl L. Johannessen reports on the discovery of the remains of black-boned chickens in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; they were used in medicines among the K'ekchi Maya.

1982

Munro S. Edmonson notes that "particular substances were counted by the containers in which they are typically carried" among the Quiché Maya.

1982

Richard L. Bushman argues that there are substantial differences between 19th-century American democracy and the system of judges introduced in Mosiah 29.

Aug 1982

Eugene Hunn notes that the peccary and Pronghorn antelope were used by the Aztecs; notes that the Pronghorn antelope is the ecological counterpart of the Old World sheep and goat.

1983

Testament of Joseph 19 (c. 2nd century BC) predicts that the Messiah will be born of a virgin.

1983

Fredrik Lindström argues that the Old Testament is not monistic and God is not the immediate cause of all evil.

1983

Testament of Joseph speaks of the Messiah as a "spotless lamb."

1983

Testament of Joseph (recension A) speaks of the Messiah as a "Lamb."

1983

Testament of Benjamin (c. 1st century BC) calls the Messiah the "Lamb of God."

1984

Raymond C. Treat (RLDS) discusses the discovery of barley in the New World.

1984

Lyle Sowls notes that peccaries can be tamed by people if they are removed from their mother and handled at an early age.

1984

Jim I. Mead and David J. Meltzer, discusses the presence of collagen from mammoth bones from the post Pleistocene era, dating from 5,985, 7,200, and 8,815 years before the present.

1984

Lyle Sowls notes that peccaries have been called "wild pigs" and shares many similarities with pigs.

1984

Lyle Sowls discusses the differing sizes of peccaries based on geographic locations; remains of peccaries have been attested in ancient Maya sites.

1984

Raymond C. Treat (RLDS) discusses the fortifications discovered at Becan and their relationship to the fortifications described in the Book of Mormon.

1984

Dan Klein and Ward Lloyd discuss glass making in antiquity, including the Bronze Age (3300-1200 BC).

1985

Popol Vuh makes reference to shields and corn among the Quiché Maya.

1985

Popol Vuh makes reference to "white corn" and "yellow corn" as being among the Quiché Maya.

1985

Popol Vuh makes reference to corn and peccaries among the Maya.

1985

Popol Vuh makes reference to dogs and turkeys among the Maya.

1985

R. A. Donkin discusses the peccary in the New World.

1985

John L. Sorenson argues that "dragon" in the Book of Mormon is a reference to the crocodile or caiman.

1985

John L. Sorenson provides evidence of loan-shifting in Mesoamerica.

1985

Jacques Soustelle discuss the presence of various animals among the Olmecs, such as the dog and turkey.

1985

John L. Sorenson discusses various aspects of material culture in the Book of Mormon in the New World, such as silk, linen, synagogues, altars, and money.

1985

Popol Vuh makes reference to shields (pokob') among the Maya.

1985

Popol Vuh makes reference to swords among the Quiché Maya.

1985

Popol Vuh makes reference to "projectiles" and bows and arrows among the Quiché Maya.

1985

Joseph B. Mountjoy and Luis M. Torres discuss the discovery of chains in Tomatlan, Mexico.

1985

Isabel T. Kelly discusses the discovery of artifacts in Colima, Mexico, including jewelry (earrings).

1985

John L. Sorenson discusses weapons and armor in the Book of Mormon and potential parallels from Mesoamerica.

1985

Jacques Soustelle discusses stela nos. 2 and 3 from La Venta; they show the presence of axes and minor deities (demons) among the Olmecs.

1985

Carolyn Baus Czitrom discusses the presence of the bow, arrow, double-edged swords, and human sacrifice in Postclassic Era West Mexico.

1985

Jacques Soustelle discusses the lack of extant examples of Olmec writing; notes that if the Olmecs had books, they would have been lost to the ravages of time, being made of paper, cloth, or animal skin.

1985

John L. Sorenson discusses the evidence for metals and metallurgy in Mesoamerica and its relationship to the Book of Mormon.

1985

Jacques Soustelle discusses the use of ornamental iron among the Olmecs.

1985

Jose M. Bertoluci, in a ThD thesis, concludes that Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28 can be applied to "the chief Fallen Angel, known as Satan."

1985

Popol Vuh evidences belief in demons and demonology among the Quiché Maya.

1985

Smithsonian Institution argues that the Bible is in conflict with archaeology and history, particularly Genesis 1-12; concludes that "In the best analysis, the Bible is a religious book, not an historical document."

1985

Hans Dieter Betz argues that the origin of the Sermon on the Mount pre-dates the Gospel of Matthew; writes that it "belongs to early Jewish Christianity" in the mid-first century.

1985

John L. Sorenson discusses "synagogues" in the Book of Mormon; argues they existed in preexilic times and there were structures in Mesoamerica that could be labeled "synagogue."

Oct 1985

Edward J. Brandt discusses the presence of "adieu," "bible," and "baptize" in the Book of Mormon.

1986

Linda Schele and Mary Ellen Miller list some of the crops grown by the Maya, including maize and amaranth.

1986

Michael D. Coe et al. note that altars, cannibalism, and dogs were part of Olmec culture; the Olmecs may have had the world's first compass.

1986

Carl L. Johannessen, in an article discussing contact between the New World and China, notes that black-meated chickens were used to produce medicine in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize in pre-Columbian times.

1986

Diane E. Wirth discusses the evidence for horses, elephants, and bees in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica.

1986

Charles A. Reed, in an article published in Expedition, reports how Bighorn sheep can become accustomed to humans.

1986

Diane E. Wirth discusses the evidence for writing on metal plates and use of stone boxes; argues that the Book of Mormon plates may have been composed of "tumbaga."

1986

Diane E. Wirth discusses the monetary system in Alma 11; argues the text is not discussing coins but instead is a system of weights and measurements.

1986

Diane W. Wirth discusses evidence for pre-Columian knowledge of the wheel, such as a Peruvian pottery wheel and wheeled figurines; argues that the wheel may have fell out of use as the wheel was a sacred emblem.

1986

Linda Schele and Mary Ellen Miller discuss the presence of bloodletting and consumption of alcohol (balache) among the Maya.

1986

Linda Schele and Mary Ellen Miller discuss ritual bloodletting among the Maya, including among their gods; the use of the bark of a fig tree was used for sacrificial paper used in these rituals.

1986

Linda Schele and Mary Ellen Miller discusses and presents a Maya figurine (c. 700-900) of a drunkard.

1986

Dennis Tedlock discusses the reliability of the text of the popol Voh; notes that, in spite of some debates, the bulk of the book has a "clean bill of health."

1986

Phyllis Rackin discusses anachronisms in the works of William Shakespeare, such as the use of "benevolences" as a form of forced loans in Richard II.

1986

John N. Oswalt interprets gillāyôn in Isaiah 8:1 to be either a flat piece of wood or metal.

Jan 1987

Wade E. Miller reports on mastodon fossils were recovered from Huntington, Utah, and were dated to 5080 to 5590 BC.

1987

Richard A. Diehl and Margaret D. Mandeville discuss wheeled figurines in Central America; offers various reasons why the wheel and axle was not used for transportation.

1987

Book of Mormon Critical Text discusses "pieces" in Alma 11 and its biblical background; shows that "piece" [of money] does not mean a coin.

1987

The Tanners discuss Nephite "coins" and chariots; argues that they represent anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1987

The Tanners argue that the Book of Mormon anachronistically borrows from the KJV OT, NT, and Apocrypha.

1987

Blake T. Ostler argues that the Book of Mormon, while an ancient text, has modern expansions made by Joseph on a revelatory level; this explains many of the purported anachronisms in the book.

1987

The Tanners argue that the Book of Mormon reflects 19th-century Anti-Masonic rhetoric and sentiment.

1987

Margaret Barker discuses Isaiah 2; 7; 9; and 11; understands them to be Messianic in nature.

1987

Jerald and Sandra Tanner argue that Joseph Smith was responding, in part, to the works of Thomas Paine and other deists in the Book of Mormon.

1987

The Tanners argue that the Book of Mormon interacts with 19th-century American religious debates such as infant baptism.

1987

The Tanners argue that the Book of Mormon reflects 19th-century money digging culture.

1987

Blake T. Ostler argues that the atonement theology in the Book of Mormon is influenced by Anselm of Canterbury (d. 1109).

1987

The Tanners argue that the Book of Mormon reflects 19th-century Anti-Universalist rhetoric.

1987

The Tanners argue that Greek words and names such as "Alpha and Omega" are anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1987

The Tanners claim that the Book of Mormon borrows from Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 1.

1987

Book of Mormon Critical Text, published by FARMS, notes that 1 Nephi 22:15 parallels Malachi 4:1; also notes parallels with Isaiah and Joel.

1987

Gordon D. Fee disputes the thesis that Paul's "hymn to charity" in 1 Corinthians 13 was borrowed from pre-Pauline sources.

1987

Book of Mormon Critical Text discusses the longer ending of Mark and why scholars tend to believe it is not original to the Gospel of Mark.

Sep 16, 1987

Oscar Carranza-Castañeda and Wade E. Miller report that remains of Euceratherium collinum and Bison antiquus have been discovered in Mexico from the Pleistocene period.

1988

Ross Hassig discusses the difficulty with translating Nahuatl ahuitzotl as "otter."

1988

Ross Hassig discusses the use of bows among the Aztecs; they were used with a variety of arrows.

1988

Ross Hassig notes that the Aztecs had defensive weapons such as quilted armor, helmets, and shields.

1988

Ross Hassig discusses the macuahuitl/macana; calls it a "sword"; notes that the Spanish called it a "sword" and that they described it as able to decapitate a horse in combat.

1988

Blake T. Ostler responds to Stephen R. Robinson concerning his "expansion theory" of the Book of Mormon; argues that Arminian theology and other elements in the text are examples of "expansion."

1988

Marjorie Susan Venit discusses Greek pottery and other material culture in Naukratis which predate the time of Lehi et al.

1988

J. C. De Moor discusses the background to 1 Corinthians 15:55; demonstrates that 'death' being associated with 'sting' dates before the time of Lehi.

1989

Peter Bartley argues that the crops, animals, and metallurgy in the Book of Mormon are anachronisms.

1989

Michael Kan et al. note that figurines from tombs in Mexico from c. 200 BC to AD 200 have been found with metal earrings.

1989

Joseph L. Allen discusses various aspects of Book of Mormon and Mesoamerican material culture, such as metals, currency, stone boxes, and weapons.

1989

Peter Bartley argues that the Mayans and Olmecs did not live in urban centers/cities and were not a war-like people.

1989

Peter Bartley lists Deutero-Isaiah, use of 1 Corinthians 12-13, and Synagogues as being anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1989

Dan Vogel argues that the Book of Mormon reflects 19th-century Anti-Masonic sentiment; its earliest readers interpreted the "secret combinations" as being anti-Masonic.

1989

Stephen E. Robinson critiques Blake Ostler's "expansion theory" of the Book of Mormon; argues that some purported anachronisms (e.g., Arminian theology) is not really present in book.

1989

Louise M. Burkhart reports that, in Mesoamerica, there was a belief that one being in a god's presence was "a dangerous place, a slippery place."

1989

Louise M. Burkhart reports on a Nahuatal proverb teaching about the earth being "slippery."

1989

Origen of Alexandria, in his commentary on John (early 3rd century) argues that Jesus was baptized in Bethabara, not Bethany.

1989

Louise M. Burkhart reproduces a Nahuatl proverb, "It is slippery, it is slick on the earth."

Oct 1989

Terry Stocker et al. discuss the presence of crocodiles and depictions of crocodiles in art among the Olmecs.

1990

Jeanette Favrot Peterson discusses the role and status of dogs among the Maya and Aztecs before the arrival of the Spanish.

1990

Jeanette Favrot Peterson discusses the status of the peccary; a "Great White Peccary" and a "Great White Tapir" are among the oldest creator Gods of the Maya.

1990

Jeanette Favrot Peterson discusses a Maya plate depicting a woman riding a deer c. A.D. 600-900.

1990

Jeanette Favrot Peterson discusses the role and status of tapirs among the Maya; notes that a Maya deity is depicted as riding a tapir.

1990

Paul Y. Hoskisson discusses the evidence for Old World "cimeters (curved swords) including the use of kîdôn in 1 Samuel 17.

1990

William J. Hamblin discusses armor in the Book of Mormon and its relationship to that of the armor used by the Maya.

1990

Amihai Mazar makes reference to a pick from the 11th century B.C. "made of real steel."

1990

Francis Robicsek discusses protective weaponry among the Maya, such as shields.

1990

Francis Robicsek discusses offensive weapons among the Ancient Maya, including the dagger; labels the macuahuitl as a "broad sword."

1990

Assyrian sword from 1310-1280 B.C. fits the description of a "scimetar."

1990

Jeanette Favrot Peterson discusses a wheeled jaguar figurine found in Veracruz, Mexico, c. A.D. 750-900.

1990

Linda Schele and David Freidel note that the Maya wrote on paper and kept thousands of books on various topics prior to the Spanish conquest.

1990

Linda Schele and David Freidel presents a figure of a monument at Chichen Itza that depicts a curved weapon.

1990

William J. Hamblin and A. Brent Merrill provide some proposals as to what Mesoamerican weapon was the Book of Mormon "cimeter."

1990

William J. Hamblin and A. Brent Merrill discuss swords in the Book of Mormon; concludes that the "sword" used by the Book of Mormon peoples in the New World was the Mesoamerican macuahuitl.

1990

Relief at Medenint Habu (1192-1160 B.C.) depicts the use of a curved sword (scimitar).

1990

William J. Hamblin provides evidence for the use of the bow and arrow in the Ancient Near East and Mesoamerica.

1990

Depiction of a warrior in Mexico (c. 200 A.D.) depicts a soldier with a macuahuitl and a possible scimitar.

1990

Elizabeth Hill Boone notes that there is a Maya glyph that has the meaning of "to immerse in water."

1990

Bruce W. Warren discusses the Mesoamerican context for the secret combinations as described in the Book of Mormon.

1990

David Carrasco discusses the use of multiple calendars among the Maya.

1990

Daniel C. Peterson discusses and critiques the thesis that the Gadianton Robbers as depicted in the Book of Mormon reflects 19th-century anti-masonry.

1990

Daniel C. Peterson discusses the Gadianton Robbers in life of guerrilla warriors and warfare.

1990

Simon J. Kistemaker writes that Amos 9:11, quoted in Acts 15:16, "is a prophetic reference to the temple of the Lord."

1990

Michael Graulich discusses conceptions about the afterlife among the Aztecs.

1990

John W. Welch discusses the Melchizedek material in Alma 13; notes that it has parallels with ancient texts such as the Melchizedek Scroll from Qumran.

1990

Dorothy Hosler discuss the use of various forms of metal money in pre-Columbian America.

1991

Jacob Milgrom discusses Azazel and elimination rites in the Ancient Near East; the Mesopotamian practice was informed, in part, by belief in the reality of demons.

1991

Jacob Milgrom argues that Leviticus 16:8's reference of לַעֲזָאזֵֽל la’azā’zēl (KJV: scapegoat) is a reference to a goat demon.

1991

Nahum M. Sarna discusses the Sabbath in the Exodus; notes that seven-day units of time predated the book of Exodus in other Ancient Near Eastern (e.g., Akkadian) cultures.

1991

Faulkner glosses snb as "Farewell!".

1991

G. I. Davies follows Yohanan Aharoni in interpreting ml'ky from Arad Inscription 97 (c. 7th century BCE) attests to "Malachi" being a personal name, not a title.

1991

Moshe Garsiel discusses the differences between scientific etymology of names and the biblical author's explanation of the origin of names.

Sep 1991

Jack P. Lewis provides a historical overview of the interpretations of Genesis 3:15; argues that even if the text is "messianic" "does not necessarily imply that it is virgin-birth messianic."

1992

Alan R. Millard discusses the significance of anachronisms in the Abraham biblical narrative.

1992

Juris Zarins discusses camels in the Bible; argues that, while there is evidence for domesticated camels in the Levant by the latter part of the 2nd millennium BC, some issues remain as yet unresolved.

1992

Ross Hassig notes that knives/daggers were used by Mesoamerican soldiers.

1992

Ross Hassig lists the standard Aztec weapons; includes bow, arrow, quiver, and ax; calls macuahuitl a "broadsword."

1992

Ross Hassig reports that the sling was used in Mesoamerica although it does not appear in works of art.

1992

Ross Hassig notes the presence of bows, arrows, slings, and broadswords among the Aztecs.

1992

Ross Hassig labels a club with obsidian blades as a "short sword"; also notes that human sacrifice was practiced in Mesoamerica.

1992

Ross Hassig notes that shields were used among the Maya; they were often more symbols of power than functional armor.

1992

Ross Hassig reports that the Maya used helmets as part of their armor.

1992

Ross Hassig notes that shields were adopted in the Late formative period of Mesoamerica; they "would have been a formidable deterrent to an enemy charge."

1992

Ross Hassig notes that the Maya word for "sling" dates as far back at 1000 B.C.

1992

Ross Hassig reports that the Aztecs, before the arrival of the Spanish, had slings and a weapon he calls a "sword" (hadzab) which was made of chulul wood.

1992

Ross Hassig notes that the Maya had slings, the atlatl, and in some instances, used shields.

1992

John L. Sorenson provides a survey of scholarly literature that indicates knowledge of metals and metallurgy were known in Mesoamerica earlier than the scholarly consensus.

1992

James Lockhart discusses the use of metals (e.g., gold dust; copper artifacts) as currency in Mesoamerica.

1992

Ross Hassig reports that some armor was used during the Early Classic period of Mesoamerica, including helmets of quilted cotton; shock weapons were used, and were tied to belts.

1992

Joyce Marcus discuses various weapons depicted in Mesoamerican codices; refers to a "curved weapon" and calls the Macuahuitl a "short broadsword."

1992

Ross Hassig reports that the Classic Maya elite had spears, a variety of bladed and unbladed clubs, shields, and helmets.

1992

Ross Hassig reports that armies were commonplace in Mesoamerica.

1992

Charles A. Kennedy discusses the Cult of the Dead in the Bible and related literature; addresses the debates as to whether the dead were seen as having a conscious existence after death.

1992

Theodore J. Lewis discusses Sheol in the Bible and related literature; there is evidence for belief of a conscious existence among the Israelites after death.

1992

Erich Robert Paul discusses heliocentrism in the Book of Mormon.

1992

Matthew Roper addresses various arguments raised against the Book of Mormon in chapter 5 of Mormonism: Shadow or Reality? by the Tanners.

1992

Robert David Aus discusses the pre-New Testament background to the concept of one person dying to save an entire nation.

1992

Gerhard F. Hasel discusses the "Sabbath" in the Bible and related literature; discusses its pre-Old Testament precedents and reception history.

1992

W. George Lovell discusses the presence of prisons in Mesoamerica.

1992

Mary LeCron Foster's 1992 presentations on correspondences between Old World and New World languages.

1992

John L. Sorenson argues that the Book of Mormon contains strong implicit support for "others" being in the land when Lehi arrived and their being incorporated into the Nephites and Lamanites.

1992

Jack R. Lundbom notes that the book of Jeremiah was composed before and just after the destruction of Jerusalem.

1992

John A. Tvedtnes addresses charge Book of Mormon is anachronistic due to its use of the Old Testament and understanding of the Old Covenant.

1992

Mary Lee Treat (RLDS) discusses the use of "head(s)" in the Book of Mormon.

1992

Angela M. Crowell (RLDS) discusses the use of "adieu" in Jacob 7:27.

1992

Joyce Marcus discusses the biased history written by Mesoamerican rulers; victorious parties would often deface or destroy inscriptions and other monuments of defeated peoples.

1992

Stephen D. Ricks reviews Wesley Walter's The Use of the Old Testament in the Book of Mormon; discusses whether the Book of Mormon borrows anachronistically from the Old Testament.

1992

Daniel C. Peterson discusses the use of "secret combination" in 1826 to refer to a political conspiracy.

1992

Joyce Marcus reports that a number of Mesoamerican texts have been destroyed or lost.

1993

Hugh Thomas notes that Mexicans, when they countered the horses of the Conquistadors, called them "deer"; Thomas argues the natives may have had a tradition reflecting the presence of horses before the Spanish.

1993

Patricia de Fuentes, in her translation of the works of the Conquistadors, reports that "lions" were present among the natives in Mexico.

1993

Mario T. Alberdi and Jose L. Prado discuss the presence of Hippidion in the New World from 13,000 to 8,000 Before Present.

1993

Deanne G. Matheny argues that the reference to various plants, animals, metals, and tents in the Book of Mormon are anachronisms.

1993

William J. Hamblin reviews the Tanners' Archaeology and the Book of Mormon; addresses various purported anachronisms such as "coins" and issues relating to language and script.

Jan 1993

Dora M. K. de Grinberg notes that the inhabitants of Mesoamerica, as a whole, knew how to make alloys such as brass.

1993

David Freidel et al. discuss the use of litters in Mesoamerica and the use of battle beasts.

1993

Richard S. Peigler reports on the use of silk among the Aztecs in Mexico and Central America.

1993

Deanne G. Matheny argues that the reference to various plants, animals, metals, and tents in the Book of Mormon are anachronisms.

1993

Mary Miller and Karl Taube notes that in Maya thought, the earth was viewed as a great caiman floating on the sea.

1993

Mary Miller and Karl Taube discuss the presence of a lunar calendar in ancient Mexico.

1993

James R. White argues that the Book of Mormon's references to pre-exilic knowledge of crucifixion, "Bible," and "compass" are anachronisms.

1993

Melodie Moench Charles argues that much of the Christology and Messianic expectations in the Book of Mormon are modern, not ancient (e.g., concept of an infinite atonement).

1993

William J. Hamblin addresses common arguments/misconceptions about the Book of Mormon in light of Geography and archaeology.

1993

Dan Vogel argues that the Book of Mormon reflects the 19th-century debates concerning Universalism.

1993

Mark D. Thomas argues that the theology of the Eucharist and sacramental prayers in the Book of Mormon are post-Reformation/19th-century in origin.

1993

Kevin Christensen discusses Alma's conversion and subsequent life and teachings in light of NDE research.

1993

James R. White argues that the Book of Mormon's references to pre-exilic knowledge of crucifixion, "Bible," and "compass" are anachronisms.

1993

David P. Wright argues that the Melchizedek material in Alma 13 anachronistically borrows from, and re-works, material in the Epistle to the Hebrews.

1993

David J. A. Clines notes that Alma (אלמא) is attested as a name for a Semitic male from the Bar Kokhba documents.

1994

John L. Sorenson discusses metals, animals, etc. in the Book of Mormon and ancient Mesoamerica in response to criticisms by Deanne G. Matheny.

1994

John L. Sorenson discusses metals, animals, etc. in the Book of Mormon and ancient Mesoamerica in response to criticisms by Deanne G. Matheny.

1994

Dorothy Hostler discusses the presence of various tin and/or bronze ingots in West Mexico; Spanish used Brass (azófar) to describe any copper alloy they encountered among the natives.

1994

Dorothy Hosler notes the presence of Tumbaga in Mexico.

1994

Dorothy Hosler discusses the presence of axes in Mesoamerica.

1994

Dorothy Hosler reports the use of metals to produce bells, hair ornaments, sheet metal disks and diadems, and large ornamental tweezers.

1994

Dorothy Hosler notes how non-ferrous metallurgy was known in the Andes of South America c. 700-200 B.C..

1994

Ross Hassig reports that warriors at Tollan had used a weapon he labels a "sword": a wooden handle with obsidian blades on its edges.

1994

Richard Lloyd Anderson argues that sacramental prayers in Book of Mormon reflect antiquity, not later debates about the Eucharist.

1994

Dorothy Hosler notes that complex smelting technology and copper metallurgy was present in Mexico c. A.D. 600.

1994

Ross Hassig discusses weapons and armor among the Aztecs; labels the macuahuitl as a stone-bladed wooden broadsword.

1994

Image from Chronicles of Michoacán contains figure holding a bow and arrow.

1994

Ross Hassig calls the macuahuitl a "wooden broadsword."

1994

Dorothy Hosler discusses the presence of metals being used for money in Mesoamerica, such as thin, axe-shaped pieces of sheet metal.

1994

Martin S. Tanner addresses Dan Vogel's claims that the Book of Mormon addresses 19th-century anti-Universalism.

1994

William J. Hamblin responds to Brent Lee Metcalfe's arguments about parallels between biblical and Book of Mormon narratives and 19th-century anti-Masonry.

1994

John W. Welch responds to David P. Wright concerning the relationship between Alma 12-13 and Hebrews; argues that the Melchizedek material in the Book of Mormon has strong parallels from texts such as those from Qumran and 2 Enoch.

1994

John Tvedtnes discusses the use of "Christ" and "adieu" in the Book of Mormon.

1994

John A. Tvedtnes offers some criticisms of David P. Wright's claim Alma 13 is based on the Melchizedek material in Hebrews; argues Alma 13 has ties to texts such as the Melchizedek Scroll from Qumran.

1995

Smithsonian Institution lists a number of purported anachronisms (e.g., animals; crops).

1995

Eric Kettunen lists a series of purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon (e.g., animals; plants; metals/metallurgy).

1995

Sandra L. Olsen discusses the impact horses have had on societies.

1995

David W. Anthony notes that horses were used as a source of meat among some people.

1995

Søren Wichmann shows that the Mixe-Zoquaean language had a word for "chicken."

1995

Janis Hutchinson mentions cement as an alleged anachronism in the Book of Mormon.

1995

Eric Kettunen provides a listing of purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1995

Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner interpret גִּלָּיוֹן in Isaiah 8:1 as a reference to a tablet made of metal, wood, or leather.

1995

Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner define "נֵבֶל" (KJV: "viol") as a "stringed instrument."

1995

Søren Wichmann shows that the Mixe-Zoquaean language had a word for "metal."

1995

Ian Shaw and Paul Nicholson discuss the evidence for glass making in antiquity.

1995

Hannig glosses Egyptian snb as "Lebewohl" (farewell, adieu).

1995

G. André says that a word in the Hebrew Bible and other literature can also mean "wash."

1995

John A. Tvedtnes and Matthew Roper reviews the charge that the Book of Mormon derives some of its themes and narratives from the Apocrypha.

1995

Ian Shaw and Paul Nicholson discuss Naukratis, a Greek settlement in Egypt; dates colony to c. 630 B.C.

1995

Sidney B. Sperry discusses Isaiah in the Book of Mormon; examines Deutero-Isaiah and ancient support for some textual variants for the Isaiah text in the Book of Mormon.

1995

Hans Dieter Betz argues that μαρκαριος ("blessed"/"happy") traces its origin to Egyptian m'r, which has the same meaning.

1995

Hans Dieter Betz notes that the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:9b-13) "comes from the historical Jesus himself."

1995

Margaret Barker argues that the theology of the temple before the time of Christ and during the Old Testament period was "Christianity."

1995

A Gianto discusses שׁלט in biblical Aramaic; notes it has the sense of an agent/representative, such as "an official authorized by the king."

1995

A sarcophagus from Izmit/Nikomedia reads "Αιμιλιαι Παυληι Αιμιλιου Παυλου θυγατρι" ("For Aimilia Paula, daughter of Aimilios Paulos").

1995

A stele from Izmit/Nikomedia reads "Δειος Δειου" ("Deios son of Deios").

1995

Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner discuss the meaning of תבל; meanings include "immersion" and "to dip something into."

1996

Stan Larson reproduces, with some of his own commentary, Thomas Stuart Ferguson's list of purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1996

Amber M. Vanderwarker discusses the presence of peccaries and dogs among the Olmecs.

1996

Margaret R. Bunson and Stephen M. Bunson list "wild horses" among animals in Mesoamerica that went extinct from around 11,000-7,000 B.C.

1996

Nadav Na'aman reports on the discovery of Judean ostraca and weights containing hieratic numerals and signs from the eighth and seventh centuries BC.

1996

Leon Cornforth lists Reformed Egyptian, iron, steel, and silk as being anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

1996

Susan Niditch argues that Job 19:24 is a reference to using an iron stylus to write on lead.

1996

James R. White, in a critique of LDS apologetics and scholarship, argues that "swords" in the Book of Mormon are anachronistic to ancient America.

1996

Gerhard Dohrn-van Rossum places the date of the invention of the mechanical clock between 1270 and 1330.

1996

Paul Bahn provides a definition of archaeology.

1996

Richard Bauckham argues that the tent/tabernacle of David (LXX: σκηνη Δαυειδ) in Amos 9:11 was understood by the author of Acts and James to be a reference to the temple.

1996

Susan Niditch discusses the use of "letters" (alt. "Epistles") in the Old Testament.

1997

Marion Schwartz discusses the domestication of dogs in the New World.

1997

Matthew Roper responds to James R. White concerning swords in Mesoamerica and the Book of Mormon; argues that the descriptions of swords in the text matches the macuahuitl.

1997

Ruben G. Mendoza discusses how the soldering of gold was a known goldsmithing technique in Mesoamerica; also discusses the production of tumbaga.

1997

Gerard Van Groningen discusses the use of ’almâ in Isaiah 7:14; argues, in light of ǵlmt and ‘galmatu in the Ugaritic tablets, 'almâ must be translated "virgin."

1997

Joseph Blenkinsopp discusses the ancestor cult among the Israelites during the First Temple era.

1997

Leo G. Perdue discusses the ancestor cult in Ancient Israel; there was a belief that the dead had some form of conscience existence.

1997

Gerard Van Groningen addresses the question of Messianic expectation and Genesis 1-4.

1997

Marian Bodine provides a listing of various purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon, such as "adieu" and the name "Sam."

1997

Nahman Avigad discusses stamps that attests to יאש (Ya'ush) being a Semitic name.

1997

Jeffrey R. Holland discusses the parallels between 1 Corinthians 13 and Moroni 7; argues both Paul and Moroni may have used an ancient source or it was the result of revelation to both authors.

1997

J. C. O'Neill discusses Testament of Joseph 19; argues that "Lamb of God" is not a later Christian interpolation to the text.

1997

Nahman Avigad discusses the seal that mentions שם ("Shem").

1997

John A. Tvedtnes and Matthew Roper address the use of "Christians" in the Book of Mormon; the term was perhaps used to translate a word the Nephites would have used to denote a Messiah follower.

1997

Ronald V. Huggins argues that the version of the Sermon on the Mount in 3 Nephi 12-14 is dependent upon the Gospel of Matthew in the KJV, not on a historical sermon Jesus presented in the Old, and later, New World.

1997

J. C. O'Neill discusses the use of "Lamb of God" in Testament of Benjamin 3; argues it was not an interpolation by a later Christian editor.

1997

Daniel C. Peterson responds to purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon, such as "adieu" and the Nephite monetary system in Alma 11.

1997

D. Charles Pyle reviews Marian Bodine's "Book of Mormon vs. the Bible (or common sense)" paper; addresses purported anachronisms such as "Sam" and "Holy Ghost."

1998

John L. Sorenson discusses the cultivation of corn in Mesoamerica.

1998

John L. Sorenson discusses animals in Mesamerica (e.g., peccary [wild pig]); proposes that some animals in the Book of Mormon are New World animals with Old World terms applied to them.

1998

David J. A. Clines discusses כִּידוֹן kîdôn; one definition provided is "a short curved sword."

1998

Raphael Patai discusses ancient Jewish seafaring in antiquity.

1998

John L. Sorenson discusses the use of litters and the wheel in Mesoamerica; suggests the litter was the "chariot" in the Book of Mormon.

1998

Randall P. Spackman discusses the date of Lehi's exodus from Jerusalem and its relationship to the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem.

1998

Sarah Israelit-Groll argues that Isaiah 19 shows that the prophet Isaiah was knowledgeable of Egyptian language and culture.

1998

Wayne Horowitz discusses the earth/underworld being a place of no return in Mesopotamian cosmology.

1998

Wayne Horowitz discusses knowledge of the movement of the moon, sun, and planets in ancient Mesopotamia.

1998

D. Michael Quinn argues that the concept of the Book of Mormon as a "sealed" book and slippery treasures reflects the 19th century magic world view.

1998

D. Michael Quinn discusses the phrase "secret combinations"; argues that the anti-Masonic reading is superfical; instead, it was a term used during Joseph's time as a synonym for "conspiracy."

1998

Wayne Horowitz discusses the evidence for knowledge of the movement of the sun in the Ancient Near East, centuries before the time of Lehi et al.

1998

John L. Sorenson discusses "secret groups" in Mesoamerica; draws parallels between these groups and the Gadianton Robbers in the Book of Mormon.

1998

John Gee argues that Isaiah 7:14 cannot be a prophecy concerning the birth of King Hezekiah as he would have been between 9 and 12 years of age at the time of the prophecy.

1998

D. Michael Quinn discusses the name "Laman"; argues it may derive from lamen, a word for a magic-inscribed parchment.

1998

D. Michael Quinn discusses the name "Lehi"; proposals for its origin include the Lehigh/Lecha river or "Lehon," a name used to invoke spirits through ritual magic.

1998

D. Michael Quinn discusses the name "Nephi"; argues it is derived from various terms associated with spirits and magic such as "Nephiomaoth" and "Nephes"/"Nephesh."

1998

D. Michael Quinn provides various proposals for the origin of "Moroni" from magical texts and other literature of Joseph's time.

1998

D. Michael Quinn discusses the origin of "Mormon"; argues it may come from the Scottish name "Moorman" or from "Mormo" (a spectre).

1998

D. Michael Quinn discusses the name "Alma"; proposes it may come from a term meaning "Bountiful" or "soul"; also proposes a relationship to a treasure guardian-spirit such as "Almazim"/"Almazin."

1999

Stan Larson discusses various objections (e.g., metals; animals; plants; weapons) he and Thomas Stuart Ferguson have against the Book of Mormon.

1999

Umberto Eco notes that, when Marco Polo encountered the rhinoceros, he labelled it "unicorn."

1999

John A. Tvedtnes argues that Lehi and his family were metalworkers; this knowledge would have been passed onto Nephi's descendants in the Old World.

1999

Slavomil Vencl discusses warfare during the Stone Age era; notes that archaeological sources fail to provide evidence for the large number of men lost in battle in written records.

1999

John L. Sorenson provides evidence for tents in Mesoamerica.

1999

Nicholas Read et al. discusses the luminescent stones in the book of Ether; cites radioluminescent lights and aerogel as possible explanations for the luminescent nature of the stones.

1999

John W. Welch discusses the Ancient Near Eastern background to Alma 11 and its use of weights and measurements.

1999

John A. Tvedtnes discusses examples of writing on metal plates which were discovered post-1830.

1999

David Webster notes that in the 1950s, there was a paradigm shift where the Maya were no longer considered a peaceful civilization but instead engaged actively in warfare.

1999

Susan Milbrath reports that astronomy was an integral part of ancient Mesoamerican daily life.

1999

Mark D. Thomas compares the Secret Combinations in the Book of Mormon with a Jewish "band of robbers" in the works of Josephus; argues the parallels are greater than proposed allusions to Masonry.

1999

Aramaic and English translation of 11Q13 (the Melchizedek Scroll) which portrays a heavenly Melchizedek who is a Great High Priest whose sufferings atone for sins.

1999

11Q5 from the Dead Sea Scrolls speaks of God's kindness (חסד, alt. "mercy") and justice (צדק).

1999

John L. Sorenson discusses "leprosy" among the Book of Mormon peoples; proposes it may have been New World uta (leishmaniasis), Chagas' disease, and pinta, which cause an appearance like leprosy.

1999

John W. Welch discusses Testament of Joseph 19 and its parallels with Nephi's teachings concerning Jesus; both texts describe the Messiah as a "Lamb."

1999

Mark D. Thomas argues that "secret combinations" in the Book of Mormon is used of "oath-taking murderous societies" and would be interpreted as referring to Masonry by 19th-century readers.

1999

David Webster notes that extant Maya texts are rare; literacy was largely confined to the elite and royal classes and the first large monument inscriptions appear c. A.D. 300.

1999

John A. Tvedtnes discusses per-Christian Messianic expectation, such as the Heavenly Melchizedek figure in the Dead Sea Scrolls.

1999

John W. Welch discusses the occurrence of the Aramaic terms "mammon" and "raca" in the Book of Mormon.

1999

John A. Tvedtnes discusses abridgment of records in the Old Testament.

1999

Wonsuk Ma discusses the evidence supporting Isaiah 11:1-2 being a pre-exilic text.

1999

William White discusses the meaning of "רֹאשׁ"; includes meaning of "chief."

1999

John A. Tvedtnes discusses "Lucifer" in Isaiah 14:12/2 Nephi 14:12; argues it refers to Marduk, the true King of Babylon.

1999

Douglas R. Hofstadter discusses differing translations of "Jabberwocky" and their justifications.

1999

P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., discusses the discovery of three arrowheads from the 11th century B.C.; they attest to the name "Aha" and that "the inscription had been incised with a steel engraving tool."

1999

John Gee discusses proposed etymologies for "Nephi"; favors Nephi being derived from Egyptian nfr ("good").

1999

Mark D. Thomas compares Alma's conversion account in Mosiah 27/Alma 36 with Paul's conversion in the New Testament.

1999

John W. Welch and Heidi Harkness Parker discuss the Old Testament background to the principle of it being better that one man perish than a nation should perish.

1999

John A. Tvedntes discusses various texts written in a Semitic language but using an Egyptian script.

2000

Al Case lists a series of purported anachronisms (cultural; animals; crops) in the Book of Mormon.

2000

Al Case lists a series of purported anachronisms (cultural; animals; crops) in the Book of Mormon.

2000

John A. Tvedtnes discusses ancient texts written on metal plates, the use of stone boxes, and other elements from antiquity paralleling the Book of Mormon.

2000

David A. Scott discusses metallurgical analysis of New World depletion gilding on ancient gold objects in South America.

2000

James C. Moyer discusses the use of "sickle swords" (scimitars) in preexilic Israel.

2000

John L. Sorenson discusses the parallels between the war of extermination in the Book of Mormon and warfare patterns in Mesoamerica.

2000

The Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (BDAG) defines ῥέδη, translated as "chariots" in KJV Revelation 18:13, as a "a four-wheeled traveling carriage."

2000

Silvia A. Centeno and Deborah Schorsch discusses the use of gilding techniques among South American goldsmiths.

2000

T. R. Hobbs discusses the use of "sickle swords" (scimitars) in Egypt before the exile.

2000

Michael S. Foster reports on the discovery of ornamental chains in the New World before the arrival of the Spanish.

2000

Al Case lists purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon based on Joseph's cultural background and use of the KJV.

2000

William J. Adams Jr., discusses "synagogues" in the Book of Mormon and evidence supporting synagogues being a pre-exilic concept.

2000

Robert North discusses "leprosy" in the Bible; notes that there is a near-scholarly consensus that sara'at and lepra does not refer to our modern conception of "leprosy."

2000

Margaret Barker argues that Isaiah 52:13-53:12 is pre-exilic in origin.

2000

Anonymous contributor to the "Glossary" in The Sage of the Icelanders discusses various translator anachronisms in the English translation.

2000

Ted Chandler critiques attempts by some LDS scholars who appeal to "Alma" as a masculine proper name from the Bar Kokhba texts.

2000

Terrence L. Szink discusses the attestation of "Alma" as a male personal name at Ebla before the time of Lehi et al.

2000

Kevin Barney argues that "five" in "five books of Moses" (1 Nephi 5:11) is a translator's gloss from Joseph and was not original to the plates.

2000

Robert North discusses šālîḥ in Ezra 7:14; notes that, among its meanings, is that of "representative" and "apostle."

2000

Alan B. Lloyd notes that Greek colonists settled Naukratis before the mid/late 7th century B.C.

2000

John A. Tvedtnes et al. discuss the evidence of "Josh" and "Sam" being authentic names.

Jul 29, 2000

Gustav Niebuhr reports that archaeologists such as Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman believe that the depiction of Jerusalem and David's Kingdom to be contradicted by the archaeological data.

Sep 2000

Bruce Dahlin discusses the evidence for wars of annihilation in 10 fortified sites in the northwestern Yucatan plains.

2001

Kitty Emery discusses fauna in ancient Mesoamerica; the peccary was husbanded in various places of Mesoamerica.

2001

Victoria Schlesinger discusses morpho peleides (morpho butterfly) in Mesoamerica; also notes that an alcoholic beverage called balche was used among the Maya.

2001

Victoria Schlesinger discusses the presence of dogs in Mesoamerica; different species were known to the Maya.

2001

Victoria Schlesinger notes that the Maya had both bees and a bee God; Maya produced an alcoholic beverage balche produced, in part, from honey.

2001

Victoria Schlesinger discusses the peccary in Mexico; notes similarities to the pig in appearance and behavior.

2001

Victoria Schlesinger discusses Heliconius spp (tiger-stripe butterfly) among the ancient Maya.

2001

Philip J. King discusses the evidence for carburized iron and steel in pre-exilic Israel.

2001

Article in the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies argues that the plates were tumbaga and weighed 60 pounds.

2001

Victoria Schlesinger notes that the Maya tracked the movement of planets.

2001

Amir D. Aczel notes that the Chinese knew about the magnetic properties of lodestone c. 800 BC.

2001

Kevin Christensen reviews Margaret Barker's scholarship; argues that many of her works demonstrate that themes in the Book of Mormon (e.g., atoning Messiah) is part of the temple cult before the reform by Josiah.

2001

Tryggve N. D. Mettinger discusses purported "dying and rising gods" in the Ancient Near East; argues that there were some deities (e.g., Baal) who were killed and were raised from the dead.

2001

Tryggve N. D. Mettinger examines the notion of a deity returning back from the dead after 3 days; concludes it is possible but far from an established fact in the ANE.

2001

Victoria Schlesinger discusses the various writing systems among the Maya before the arrival of the Spanish.

2001

Tryggve N. D. Mettinger discusses Baal in the Ugaritic Baal Cycle; concludes that Baal is indeed a "dying and rising god."

2001

Mark S. Smith disputes the work of James G. Frazer, The Golden Bough concerning dying and rising gods in antiquity, such as Baal.

2001

Michael S. Heiser argues that Isaiah 14:12-15 is about the fall of the Canaanite deity Athar.

2001

Origen in his commentary on Romans (c. 246) uses "Lucifer" to describe Satan.

2001

William O. Walker, Jr., argues that 1 Corinthians 13 is a later, non-Pauline interpolation to the text of First Corinthians.

2001

Amir D. Aczel notes that the invention of the mariner's compass did not result in a dramatic advantage to sailors.

2001

Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman argue that the references to "Arameans" and Edom as a distinct political entity are both anachronisms in the book of Genesis.

Mar 2001

Marion Pichardo discusses various mammoth species found in the New World, including Central Mexican Paleoindian sites.

Jun 29, 2001

Kevin Christensen addresses the charge that the Book of Mormon contains anachronisms.

2002

John Montgomery discusses the Maya glyphs Nal that refer to "maize" and a Maize God.

2002

John Montgomery discusses the Maya glyph "sa" referring to "corn/maize."

2002

John Montgomery has an entry for tz-i-i, a Maya glyph meaning "dog."

2002

Thomas W. Murphy lists horses, chariots, steel swords, cattle, wheat, and oats as being anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

2002

Marisol Montellano-Ballesteros discuss the discovery of gomphotheres (related to elephants) from Mexico.

2002

Nerissa Russell, in an article published in Society and Animals, discusses how animals which were not domesticated may often be tamed or managed in ways that benefit humans.

2002

John L. Sorenson discusses the presence of various fermented drinks in Mesoamerica that the Spaniards called "wine."

2002

John L. Sorenson discusses the attestation of cement in Mesoamerica during the first century B.C.

2002

Lynn V. Foster reports that pearls have been found in Maya ruins.

2002

Lynn V. Foster discusses the presence of thatched storehouses ("barns") in Central America.

2002

John Montgomery discusses the glyphs pakal and pa-ka-la both referring to a type of shield among the Maya.

2002

John Montgomery discusses the glyph ch'ak, an "axe verb," showing that the Maya used the axe as a weapon.

2002

John Montgomery discusses the Maya glyph k-awil-ob'; makes reference to the axe as being among the Maya.

2002

Lynn V. Foster discusses warfare among the ancient Maya; times of wars/battles were often based on astronomical dates and events.

2002

Kaylee Spencer-Ahrens and Linnea H. Wren discuss the Mesoamerican tradition of using oracle stones or polished obsidian mirrors used by shamans to see past and future events.

2002

Thomas J. Finley argues that the reference to the Liahona as a "compass" and Nephi having a "steel bow" are anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

2002

John Montgomery discusses the Maya glyph NA-ka-KAN, a glyph of a serpent deity conjured during bloodletting rites.

2002

Philip S. Johnston discusses the various beliefs concerning Sheol/Hades in the Bible and related literature.

2002

John Montgomery discusses the Maya glyphs k’u-xa-ja and k-u-xa-ji-ya, both referring to "cannibalism."

2002

Richard Abanes argues that the Book of Mormon reflects 19th-century anti-Masonry.

2002

Dan Vogel argues that it is "obvious," especially to the earliest readers, that the Book of Mormon reflects 19th-century anti-Masonry.

2002

John Montgomery discusses the glyph ch'ab' evidencing the use of sacrifice among the Maya.

2002

J. Paul Sampley discusses the "hymn to charity" in 1 Corinthians 13; concludes that it was composed by Paul and is original to the epistle.

2002

Edwin Firmage, Jr., argues that "Jew" in 1 Nephi 1:2 is anachronistic.

2002

David P. Wright argues that Isaiah in the Book of Mormon represents a double anachronism: (1) Deutero-Isaiah and (2) a 19th-century interpretation of Isaiah passages.

2002

Richard Abanes claims that "adieu," the personal name "Sam," Synagogues, and the animals listed in 1 Nephi 18:25 are all anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

2002

Bradley Hudson McLean defines the field of epigraphy.

2002

David P. Wright gives overview of his thesis that the Book of Mormon is dependent upon the KJV and not an ancient textual tradition (i.e. the brass plates).

2002

Origen of Alexandria uses the term "Lucifer" to describe Satan c. A.D. 250.

2002

John A. Tvedtnes addresses the use of Mark 16:16 in the Book of Mormon; argues it may reflect an authentic Jesus tradition based on Matthew 28:19.

2002

John A. Tvedtnes discusses Isaiah 4:5 and 5:25 in the KJV and the Book of Mormon; argues the Book of Mormon does not copy purported translation errors in the KJV of these passages.

2002

David P. Wright argues that the variant reading in 2 Nephi 8:19 (= Isaiah 51:19) is in error and an impossibility in Hebrew.

Jul 7, 2002

Blake Ostler argues that the Book of Mormon and other early Latter-day Saint Scriptures do not teach the later doctrine of creation out of nothing.

Aug 2002

John A. Tvedtnes addresses various purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon such as windows and coins.

Aug 2002

Brant A. Gardner situates the events concerning the Gadianton Robbers with events in pre-classical Teotihuacan.

Nov 22, 2002

Jennifer A. Leonard et al., discuss the evidence for the old world origins of new world dogs from pre-Columbian times.

2003

Kenneth A. Kitchen discusses camels in the book of Genesis; argues there is evidence for camels during this period, including a camel on an early thirteenth-century sherd from Pi-Ramesse in Egypt.

2003

J. Arroyo-Cabrales et al. discuss the evidence for the use of mammals among people in Mexico during the Pleistocene era.

2003

G. A. Klingbeil discusses, and offers possible resolutions to purported anachronisms in Genesis and other biblical texts such as camels, tents, and nomadism.

2003

Brian Hauglid discussed animals in the Book of Mormon; argues that future discoveries may authenticate the Book of Mormon; also appeals to "loan shifting" as theorized by John L. Sorenson.

2003

Martha J. Macri and Matthew G. Looper dictionary entry for Maya hieroglyph for "tapir."

2003

John A. Tvedtnes and Matthew Roper address the Liahona/Compass and Steel in the Book of Mormon.

2003

David Rolph Seely discusses linen in the Book of Mormon; writes that the Nephites/Jaredites may have brought it over from the Old World or used "linen" to describe a New World cloth.

2003

David R. Seely discusses "silk" in the Book of Mormon; claims it is likely that "silk" was used for a New World cloth such as fibers from wild cocoons or a fiber from the pod of the kapok tree.

2003

Arza Evans argues that the Liahona reflects 19th-century occultism; claims that Nephi's steel bow is an anachronism.

2003

Dorothy Hosler presents evidence that metals was used as currency in Post-classic Mesoamerica.

2003

Brian Hauglid discusses the Nephite monetary system for Alma 11; notes that "coin(s)" is not used, instead, Alma 11 is describing a system of weights and measurements.

2003

William Revell Phillips discusses metals in the Book of Mormon in both its Old and New World contexts.

2003

Christopher P. Thornton and Christine B. Ehlers, in an article, concludes that copper zinc alloys (e.g., brass) existed 2,000 years before the date generally accepted for the development of the cementation process.

2003

William J. Hamblin notes that there are parallels between the description of armor in the Book of Mormon and armor that was among the Olmecs and Maya.

2003

Dana M. Pikes discusses the presence of the Tower of Babel tradition in the Book of Mormon.

2003

Jessica Joyce Christie et al., discuss the presence of, and nature of, palaces among the Maya in Pre-Columbian times.

2003

Margaret Barker defends the reading of "virgin" in Isaiah 7:14; theorizes that the LXX translators, while in Egypt, would have remembered the Great Lady in Ugarit who was both "virgin" and "mother."

2003

William J. Hamblin notes that many cultural practices and metaphors in the Book of Mormon can be found in Mesoamerica.

2003

The Instruction of Amenemope (13th-11th century BC) speaks of treasures being swallowed up by the ground.

2003

Matthew Roper discusses evidence for infant baptism in pre-Columbian America.

2003

Stephen D. Ricks discusses alleged linguistic, cultural, and doctrinal anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

2003

Daniel C. Peterson and Matthew Roper discuss plausibility of Book of Mormon "horses" being Mesoamerican tapirs.

2003

William Webster provides quotations from Jewish sources (e.g., Rabbis; Mishnah; Targums) interpreting various Old Testaments in a Messianic manner.

2003

Grant H. Palmer argues that 19th-century Evangelical Protestant theology is found throughout the Book of Mormon.

2003

Grant H. Palmer argues that Alma the Younger is based on the Apostle Paul; Alma 12 borrows from Hebrews 3.

2003

John A. Tvedtnes argues that black-and-white imagery in the Book of Mormon is symbolic.

2003

Grant H. Palmer argues that the family dynamics of the Old World Twelve Apostles is mirrored by the New World Disciples in the Book of Mormon.

2003

Kenneth A. Kitchen argues that "Philistine" in Genesis 21 and 26 is an example of an anachronism introduced by a later editor updating the text replacing a then-obsolete term.

2003

Paul Y. Hoskisson discusses names in the Book of Mormon; notes that "Alma" has been discovered in the Bar Kochba documents and that there was a Greek presence in the Levant before Lehi.

2003

Allen H. Richardson and David E. Richardson discuss the use of "adieu" in Jacob 7:27.

2003

Grant H. Palmer argues that "raca" would not make sense to the Nephites; the phrase in Matthew 5:41 found in 3 Nephi 12:41 refers to a Roman Law unknown to Book of Mormon peoples.

2003

Joan E. Taylor reviews the Onomasticon by Eusebius (Christian writer of the 3rd-4th centuries AD).

2003

David E. Bokovoy and John A. Tvedtnes discuss the Semitic background to "head(s)" in the Book of Mormon.

2003

Grant H. Palmer argues that Alma 32 anachronistically borrows from the parable of the sower in Matthew 13.

2003

Victor L. Ludlow discusses synagogues in the Book of Mormon; notes synagogue worship may have developed before the time of Lehi.

Apr 20, 2003

Richard Packham argues that "steel" is anachronistic to the Book of Mormon.

Apr 20, 2003

Richard Packham argues that the Liahona/Compass is an anachronism in the Book of Mormon.

Apr 20, 2003

Richard Packham argues that the Book of Mormon contains an anachronistic reference to glass windows.

Apr 20, 2003

Richard Packham argues that the presence of Greek words/names such as "synagogue" and "Timothy" are anachronisms in the Book of Mormon.

Apr 20, 2003

Richard Packham argues that "Christ" is an anachronism in the Book of Mormon.

Apr 20, 2003

Richard Packham lists some linguistic issues sometimes raised against the Book of Mormon that are not genuine criticisms of the text.

Apr 20, 2003

Richard Packham argues that "virgin" in Isaiah 7:14/2 Nephi 17:14 and "Lucifer" in Isaiah 14:12/2 Nephi 14:12 are KJV errors in the Book of Mormon.

May 24, 2003

Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales et al. discuss the discovery of remains of mastodons in Mexico during the Pleistocene era.

2004

Daniel C. Peterson and Matthew Roper discuss the presence of various animals, plants, and metals in the Book of Mormon and the New World, such as the "horse" and the concept of "loan shifting."

2004

Carl Brenner discusses the presence of a Maize god among the Maya.

2004

Wendy G. Teeter, in her study of animal utilization from 200 BC to 1000 AD, notes that chickens (Gallus gallus) were known in Belize.

2004

Mario Pichardo notes that horses existed in Argentina as late as 5,000 B.C.

2004

Elizabeth S. Wing discusses Maya zooarchaeology; notes that chickens (Gallus gallus) were known to the Maya in pre-Columbian times.

2004

Lybov A. Orlova et al. discuss the evidence that some animals, including the woolly mammoth, survived into the Late Holocene period (3700 to 2700 years before the present).

2004

Daniel C. Peterson and Matthew Roper discuss plausibility of Book of Mormon "horses" being Mesoamerican tapirs.

2004

Dan Vogel says the honey bee in the New World post-dates European colonization.

2004

Carl Brenner notes that war was commonplace in Maya society.

2004

Nate Oman examines the term "secret combination(s)" in the Book of Mormon and contemporary legal literature; argues that it is not dependent upon the anti-Masonry of the 19th century.

2004

Margaret Barker discusses Josiah's reform in 2 Kings 22-24; argues that it resulted in a removal of various beliefs, such as an atoning Messiah which would be later restored in Christianity.

2004

Jeffrey R. Chadwick discusses Lehi's land of inheritance; concludes it was north of Jerusalem in the lands that were historically controlled by the tribe of Manasseh.

2004

Kevin Christensen argues that Margaret Barker's reconstruction of the theology of the First Temple, monarchy, and wisdom traditions in her works matches much of the theology of the Book of Mormon.

2004

Kevin Christensen argues scholarship of Margaret Barker helps resolves many of the purported issues raised by critics.

2004

B. Kedar-Kopfstein discusses the meaning and use of רֵיחַ and ריק (whence Raca) in Aramaic literature.

2004

Hans-Jürgen Zobel discusses how a Hebrew word used in the Bible and other literature includes ritual washings.

2004

W. A. M. Beuken and U. Dahmen discusses the meaning of "רֹאשׁ"; its figurative meanings include chief, tribal chief, family head, and head(s) of people as a whole.

2004

Donald B. Redford notes that there was a Greek presence in Egypt during the reign of Bocchoris (c. 722-715 BC).

Jan 6, 2004

Roberto Velázquez Cabrera presents evidence for trumpets among the Maya.

Mar 29, 2004

Ben McGuire discusses the use of "Lucifer" in 2 Nephi 24:16 (KJV Isaiah 14:16) and D&C 76.

Apr 2004

Jeremy Corley discusses the possible use of sayings going back to Jesus in 1 Corinthians 13.

Apr 2004

Jeremy Corley argues that 1 Corinthians 12:31b-13:13 is original to the text of First Corinthians.

Aug 10, 2004

Catholic Answers lists "bees" as an anachronism in the Book of Mormon.

2005

E. N. Anderson reviews Mayan naming conventions for animals (loan shifting).

2005

John E. Clark discusses how recent archaeological discoveries have added support to the Book of Mormon, such as metal plates, stone boxes, and timekeeping and prophesying in Mesoamerica.

2005

Kazuo Aoyama discusses the use of spears, darts, and discovery of arrow points in Aguateca and Copan.

2005

Richley Crapo, in his translation of Anonimo Mexicano, refers to "smoking arrows."

2005

John E. Clark discusses archaeological trends and their relationship to the Book of Mormon; argues that the Book of Mormon's plausibility as a historical text has grown, not diminished, in light of such.

2005

Ruth Russo discusses "steel" in Homer's works; discusses how "steel' was formed by quenching iron and other methods.

2005

Alister E. McGrath provides an overview of the theology of Anselm of Canterbury, including his satisfaction theory of atonement.

2005

Miguel Perez Negrete, in a B.A. thesis, discusses the "Temple of the New Fire" at Huixachtécatl, Mexico.

2005

Lee Levine discusses the evidence for pre-exilic synagogues.

2005

Paul S. Martin discusses the presence of Clovis materials alongside mammoth remains in North America.

2005

Isaac Kalimi discusses instances of historical errors and anachronisms in the books of 1-2 Chronicles as well as 1 Maccabees.

2005

Alister E. McGrath discusses the history of "justification" language; discusses the background to sedeq and related terms in the Hebrew Bible.

Jul 17, 2005

Philip Ireland writes about the discovery of the skeleton of a horse that may have lived and died 50 years before Spanish conquered California.

Aug 1, 2005

William Hamblin discusses the use of the term "steel" in the Book of Mormon and evidence for "steel" in the New World.

Jan 2006

Matthew Roper theorizes that "goats" in the Book of Mormon may have been a type of deer, such as brocket.

2006

Amber M. VanDerwarker notes that the preservation of animal bones is very poor in the humid jungles of Mesoamerica.

2006

Amber M. VanDerwarker notes that dogs have been found in the Olmec site of La Venta.

2006

Alejandro Espinosa-T. et al. discuss the distribution of the native sheep species Ovis canadensis mexicana in northern Mexico.

2006

John E. Clark gives an overview of the growth in the Book of Mormon's historical plausibility since 1830.

2006

Marco Antonio Cervera Obregon dicusses the Macuahuitl in Post-Classical Mesoamerica; based on archaeological evidence alone, the weapon has rarely been recovered.

2006

The Göttingen edition of the LXX reading of Lamentations 5:12; princes are said to be hung using the verb κρεμάννυμι, same verb used for the crucifixion of the malefactor in Luke 23:39.

2006

Blake T. Ostler retracts his claims from his 1987 Dialogue article that Alma 34 and 42 reflects the atonement theology of Anselm.

2006

Blake T. Ostler gives an overview of, and critique of, Anselm's satisfaction theory of atonement.

2006

Blake T. Ostler argues that the Book of Mormon does not teach the Arminian conception of the nature of the Fall and Original Sin.

2006

Robert Charles Branden discusses the origin and development of the belief in the fall of Satan; argues that it derives from Psalm 82 where there is a "malfunction" in the divine council.

2006

Jonathan David Lawrence, in a scholarly monograph, discusses ritual bathing and washings/immersions in the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Literature.

2006

Stephen J. Bedard argues that Paul, in 1 Corinthians 13:2-3, is deliberately mirroring the teachings of Jesus.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the use of "lions" and "dragons" in the Mosiah 20:10-11 and potential Mesoamerican animals translated as "lion" and "dragon."

2007

Joaquin Arroya-Cabrales states that, during the Late Pleistocene in Mexico, Cuvieronius, mammoth, and mastodon may have been contemporaneous at some Mexican sites.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses purportedly anachronistic animals in the Book of Mormon; argues that it is the result of Joseph Smith mislabeling unknown animals during the translation process.

2007

Carolyn Dodson and William W. Dunmire write about blue flax being native to America and used in weaving.

2007

Brant A. Gardner argues that "gold and silver" is an idiom conveying the meaning of "everything necessary," and should not be taken literally.

2007

Brant A. Gardner, commenting on Ether 3:1, argues that the plate text would not have read "glass" but perhaps "obsidian"; on a translation level, Joseph was referencing Revelation 21:21.

Jan 2007

David Webster et al. discuss the military fortification at Tikal.

2007

Gary V. Smith discusses the term "large writing surface" in Isaiah 8:1; argues it may refer to a polished surface of stone or metal.

2007

William J. Hamblin surveys the use of metal plates to compose religious writings from the ancient Mediterranean.

2007

Brant A. Gardner notes that, while no samples of metalworking has been found in Mesoamerica c. 1000 BC, linguistic evidence shows that terms for metal were known at that time.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the use of "church" in the Book of Mormon; argues it is an example of a translator's anachronism.

2007

Brant A. Gardner argues that black skin in the Book of Mormon is metaphorical for out-groups.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the use of "synagogue" in 2 Nephi 26:26; argues that Joseph used "synagogue" to translate a word close to "gathering place" in meaning on the plates.

2007

John Sietze Bergsma discusses the depiction of Melchizedek in 11QMelch (the Melchizedek Scroll) from Qumran in light of the Jubilee and the Day of Atonement.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses Helaman 12:15 and suggests it is a modern expansion by JS.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the "voice of the people" in Mosiah 29 and subsequent texts.

2007

Brant A. Gardner argues that the language of Moroni 7:45 is dependent upon 1 Corinthians 13:4-7.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the name "Ezias" in Helaman 8:20; notes it may be based on New Testament Esaias.

2007

Jehoshua M. Grintz discusses the term "Jew"; notes that that "Jew" derives from Yehudi, a pre-exilic term.

2007

Wiliam J. Hamblin discusses the use of scripts in antiquity that could be called "reformed Egyptian."

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the use of "Christ" in the Book of Mormon; argues that the phrase "his name shall be Jesus Christ" in 2 Nephi 25:19 is a translator's gloss.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses 2 Nephi 8:19 (= Isaiah 51:19); agrees with David P. Wright that it is in error, but it is due to Joseph, on a translation level, interacting with the italicized words of the King James Bible.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the use of "Bible" in 2 Nephi 29:3; argues that it is a translator's anachronism.

2007

Deborah H. Roberts discusses the presence of translator's anachronisms in modern translations of Classical sources.

2007

Brant A. Gardner addresses the use of "adieu" in Jacob 7:27 notes that it is a valid English translation of whatever word that was on the plates Joseph translated.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the imagery in Mormon 5:17-18; argues that the terms used are not from the plate text but examples of translators' anachronisms to convey the meaning on the plates.

2007

John A. Tvedtnes and E. Jan Wilson argues that the use of Deuteronomy 18:15-19 in the Book of Mormon depends on a pre-New Testament Hebrew source.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the use of "Jew" in the Book of Mormon; argues it is an example of a translator's anachronism.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses the Melchizedek material in Alma 13 and Hebrews; notes that there are important differences between Alma 13 and Hebrews 7.

2007

Brant A. Gardner notes that Mosiah 16:10 is dependent upon 1 Corinthians 15:53-54; argues that it is the result of Joseph Smith using New Testament verbiage as part of the translation process.

2007

Gary V. Smith argues that the final line of Isaiah 6:13 (= 2 Nephi 16:13) in the Masoretic Text is original and not a later interpolation.

2007

Ulrich Luz discusses the doxology in Matthew 6:13; argues that it was not original to Matthew's Gospel but a doxology was prayed when the Lord's Prayer was recited by the earliest Christians; there is Old Testament precedent for the form of the doxology.

2007

Brant A. Gardner discusses how the Book of Mormon as a translation of an ancient text and its implications for interpretation by modern readers.

Jun 19, 2007

Alice A. Storey et al. discuss radiocarbon and DNA evidence for pre-Columbian chickens in Chile; radiocarbon dating places them at AD 1304 to 1424.

2008

Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum provides fact sheet about peccaries.

2008

Ronan James Head provides overview of beekeeping in the ancient Near East.

2008

Douglas W. Veltre discusses the evidence for mammoths existing in St. Paul Island 4500 to 3500 years before the present.

2008

John A. Tvedtnes reports on the discovery of a third-century AD Jewish religious texts written on gold and silver in a Roman cemetery in Halbturn, Austria.

2008

Matthew Roper discusses various curved weapons from Mesoamerica that could be labeled a "cimeter" (scimitar).

2008

Elizabeth H. Paris discusses the presence of metals and metalworkers in Mayapan in Post-Classic Mesoamerica.

2008

Denis Kaiser summarizes Anselm of Canterbury's satisfaction theory of atonement.

2008

Mikeal C. Parsons notes that James, when quoting Amos 9:11 in Acts 15:16, understands "dwelling of David" to be "the eschatological temple" formed by Gentiles and Jews.

2008

Joseph A. Fitzmyer claims that, while "faith, hope, and charity" is not unique to 1 Corinthians, Paul did not derive it from a pre-existing tradition.

2008

Shmuel Ahituv gives glossary/onomasticon of Israelite names in a group of inscriptions.

2008

Plato's discussion of Eros (Ερος love) written in the 4th century BC parallels Paul's "hymn to charity/love" in 1 Corinthians 13.

Mar 19, 2008

EurekAlert reports on MIT demonstrating the use of ancient rafts discusses and shipping between South America and Mexico.

Jul 2008

Michael S. Heiser argues that Deuteronomy 32:17 teaches the existence of demons.

Sep 2008

Andrew Perry argues that the "tabernacle of David" in Amos 9/Acts 15 refers to a physical structure (i.e., a temple).

Sep 2008

Andrew Perry interprets the Melchizedek Scroll (11QMelch) from Qumran to be about an end-times Jubilee release.

2009

Wade E. Miller discusses the fossil record and why there can be little evidence for plants and animals in certain environments.

2009

Roland W. Kays and Don E. Wilson discuss the Bighorn sheep, a species of sheep found in North America and northern Central America.

2009

Pita Kelekna contrasts socities that evolved with and without Equus caballus, such as differences in agriculture, metallurgy, trade, dissemination of ideas, and warfare.

2009

Kazuo Aoyama discusses how, while the Maya were a war-like people, "war is difficult to demonstrate archaeologically"; bow and arrow was used in Aguateca, Guatemala.

2009

Kazuo Aoyama reports on the use of darts and spears among the Maya in Aguateca.

2009

Wade E. Miller discusses "glass" in the Book of Mormon; proposes various types of glass for the transparent stones in Ether 3, such as fulgurite.

2009

Daniel G. Brinton reports that the Tarascos in Mexico "worked with skill" with metals; they also had defensive armor such as helmets.

2009

Prudence M. Rice et al. discuss the various forms of armor and shields among the Maya in pre-Columbian times.

2009

Kazuo Aoyama discusses obsidian blades at Aguateca, Guatemala; notes that the evidence suggests that the bow and arrow were known to the Maya earlier than assumed (Late Classic period).

2009

Israel Eph’al discusses siege and military engines ("machinery") in the Ancient Near East; argues that 2 Chronicles 26:15 contains an anachronism.

2009

Thomas B. Dozeman discusses the institution of the Sabbath in Exodus 16; argues it is part of the Priestly source.

2009

Michael Lattke interprets the allusion to Isaiah 7:14 in the Odes of Solomon as reflecting a pre-Christian belief that the 'almah ("young lady") would be a "virgin" (parthenos).

2009

Ben McGuire discusses the use of 1 Samuel 17 in 1 Nephi 3-4; argues the BOM uses the pre-exilic A source but not the post-exilic B source of the narrative.

2009

Stephen J. Patterson publishes an article discussing the debate about the origins of 1 Corinthians 13:4-7; argues that the passage is not an interpolation.

2009

Matthew A. Paulson discusses the Book of Mormon reproducing KJV Isaiah 4:5 and 5:25; argues that the Book of Mormon retains KJV translation errors.

2009

The Catholic Bible Dictionary discusses the date and authorship of First and Second Maccabees.

2009

Thomas J. King examines the arguments for and against a pre-exilic origin of the P source; concludes that the P source is pre-exilic in origin.

2009

Matthew A. Paulson argues that the Book of Mormon, when quoting Isaiah, Malachi, and Matthew, uncritically follows the later chapter and verse divisions.

2009

Hans Henrich Hock and Brian D. Joseph discuss loan shifting.

2009

John W. Welch argues in favor of the authenticity of the doxology in Matthew 6:13 in light of parallel temple texts.

Mar 26, 2009

Universiteit Utrecht Website's article discusses the presence of stingless bees and honey among the pre-Columbian Maya.

Apr 2, 2009

Karen Hursh Graber discusses the evidence for honey made from stingless bees among the Maya.

Dec 29, 2009

James Haile et al argue for dating of horse remains in Alaska to 10500 years BP based on sedimentary DNA analysis.

2010

MormonThink discusses a number of purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon (plants; animals; metals and metallurgy).

2010

Dorothy Hosler discusses the presence of copper metallurgy and items such as copper bells and other ornaments, in western Mexico c. 600 AD.

2010

Isabel Villaseñor discusses the use of cement in Mesoamerican sites such as Calakmul, Mexico.

2010

Robert Boylan discusses some purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon, such as pre-exilic "synagogues" in the Book of Mormon.

2010

Michael Rydelnik argues that Isaiah 7:14 and related texts such as Isaiah 9 and 11 are direct prophecies of the Messiah.

2010

Michael Rydelnik presents evidence that Micah 5:2 is a direct prophecy of a then-future Messianic King; argues Matthew 2 records its direct fulfillment.

2010

Dina Dahbany-Miraglia documents that Jewish burials in sites located in Yemen were practiced by at least the third century BC.

2010

Robert F. Smith analyzes "epistles" in the Book of Mormon; concludes that the majority follow the forms of letters from the Ancient Near East.

2010

Esther Eshel et al. report on the discovery of an ancient gold amulet with an inscription of the Hebrew text of "Shema" (Deuteronomy 6:4) using Greek letters.

2010

Eric Nels Ortlund interprets the "tabernacle of David" in Amos 9:11-12 to be a temple/sanctuary.

2010

Jeffrey R. Chadwick discusses the discovery of Ostracon 2071 (5th century BC) and the attestion of the personal name lḥy (Lehi).

2010

Michael Rydelnik surveys the instances of almāh in the Hebrew Bible; concludes that there does not seem to be cause to abandon the traditional interpretation of ’almāh as a “virgin” in Isaiah 7:14.

Sep 20, 2010

Michael R. Ash discusses wheat, barley, linen, and silk in the Book of Mormon; argues that crops and fabrics in Mesoamerica can be labelled with such terms.

Sep 20, 2010

Michael R. Ash discusses animals such as elephants in the Book of Mormon; argues that there is evidence for some of these animals during Book of Mormon-times; some can be answered as examples of "loan-shifting."

Sep 20, 2010

Michael R. Ash discusses purported anachronisms in the Book of Mormon, such as "coins," "compass," and "glass."

Sep 20, 2010

Michael R. Ash discusses metals and metallurgy in the Old and New World (e.g., writing on metal plates; steel in the Old World).

Sep 20, 2010

Michael R. Ash addresses the weapons and armor in the Book of Mormon; finds parallels to those in Mesoamerica (e.g., macuahuitl as a sword).

Sep 20, 2010

Michael R. Ash discusses the use of "Christian" concepts (e.g., baptism) in the Book of Mormon.

2011

Amihai Mazar and Shmuel Aḥituv discuss the discovery of a 10th century BC iron sword in Israel.

2011

David J. A. Clines defines נֵ֫בֶל (KJV: "viol") as a harp or a stringed instrument.

2011

Brant A. Gardner discusses anachronisms of translation and historical anachronisms; argues that "horses" and "chariots" are examples of the former.

2011

John Anthony Dunne argues that tent/tabernacle of David (סֻכַּ֥ת דָּוִ֖יד) in Amos 9:11 is a reference to the temple in Jerusalem.

2011

Hans von Campenhausen states that "A son is named after his father as a matter of course."

2011

Brant Gardner discusses functional and conceptual equivalence methods of translation and the use of "Jesus Christ" in the Book of Mormon.

2011

David J. A. Clines defines as תַּ֫חַשׁ as the skin of a dolphin or porpoise.

2011

Brant A. Gardner discusses the influence of 19th-century vocabulary and idiomatic expressions and the KJV on the Book of Mormon text.

Nov 10, 2011

Nicholas M. Hellmuth the term "dragon" is appropriate at times to describe crocodiles or caimans.

Dec 11, 2011

Del DowDell discusses evidence for both glass and windows predating the Book of Mormon.

Dec 22, 2011

Del DowDell discusses the use of cement in the Old and New Worlds before its first reference in the Book of Mormon in Helaman 3.

2012

Dolores R. Piperno and Bruce D. Smith discuss the presence of maize, foxtail millet, amaranth, and maguey plant cultivation in ancient Mesoamerica.

2012

Karl A. Taube discusses the presence of a Maize deity in Olmec and Maya religious thought; maize was one of the crops grown by these groups.

2012

Susan Toby Evans discusses the introduction of sedentism and maize farming in Mesoamerica around 2000 BC.