Joseph Smith and the Greek Psalter

34 Primary Sources

Nov 20, 1835

Journal entry in 1835 shows Joseph owned a Greek lexicon.

Dec 23, 1835

Journal entry in 1835 indicates Joseph studied Greek.


Henry Caswall's remarks on the Mormons in 1839 with disparaging language.

Dec 12, 1840

Sample of Joseph's private language from 1840 (a holographic letter).

Mar 31, 1842

Joseph's letter to the Relief Society, March 1842.

Apr 9, 1842

Sample of private language used by Joseph in April 1842 from letter to John E. Page.

Apr 15, 1842

Published sample of Joseph's language in April 1842.

Apr 19, 1842

Joseph's journal entry for April 19, 1842.

May 21, 1842

The Churchman newspaper publishes secondhand account of the Greek Psalter incident.

Jun 1842

Henry Caswall's earliest published account of the Greek Psalter incident.

Jul 14, 1842

Christian Mirror reprints report of the Churchman saying Caswall met with Joseph and showed him the Greek manuscript.

Jul 30, 1842

Gloucestershire Chronicle reprints article from the Churchman reporting Caswall showed JS a Greek manuscript.

Jul 30, 1842

The Caledonian Mercury reprints an article from the Churchman saying Caswall met Joseph and showed him a Greek manuscript.

Aug 18, 1842

Holographic letter from Joseph to the Whitney family dated August 18, 1842.


Henry Caswall's abridged account of the Greek Psalter episode from 1843.

Oct 15, 1843

Times and Seasons article mentions Caswall's visit with Joseph.

Oct 16, 1843

Reuben Hedlock mentions Henry Caswall's visit to Nauvoo.

Nov 15, 1843

Warsaw Message publishes an account of Caswall's visit to Nauvoo.

Aug 3, 1844

Henry Caswall writes about the death of Joseph.


John Taylor publishes account of meeting Henry Caswall.


Henry Caswall gives another account of his encounter with Joseph and the Greek Psalter.


Henry Caswall's third account of the Greek Psalter incident published in 1852.


Richard Burton remarks on Henry Caswall and reviews his books.


William Saunders Parrott reprints Henry Caswall's Greek Psalter account in his 1865 book.


John W. Hess recalls seeing Joseph studying Greek.

Oct 2, 1895

"W. J. M." says he had seen Henry Caswall's Greek manuscript.


Henry C. Sheldon appeals to the Greek Psalter incident to criticize Joseph Smith.


John A. Widtsoe briefly reviews the Greek Psalter incident.


Nibley analyzes and critiques Caswall's accounts of the Greek Psalter episode.


Fawn Brodie reviews the Greek Psalter incident.

1995 - 1996

Craig Foster reviews the life of Henry Caswall; documents a lifelong antagonism towards the Church.


Religious Studies Center 2015 publication on JS interest in ancient languages, artifacts.


Welch reviews the Greek Psalter episode, points out problems with Caswall's account.


Met Museum example of a medieval Greek Psalter with description.