The Mountain Meadows Massacre

300 Primary Sources

Mar 30, 1836

Earliest known oath of vengeance in an LDS temple context. Introduced by Joseph Smith in March 1836.


John C. Bennett mentions oaths made in temple during Joseph Smith's time.


John Taylor recounts the martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum Smith on June 27, 1844.

Jun 22, 1844

Joseph wanted to send Hyrum away so his blood will be avenged if he were to be killed.

Jun 27, 1844

Allen Joseph Stout resolved to avenge the blood of Joseph and Hyrum Smith while there remains descendants of their murderers on the earth.

Jun 30, 1844

The New York Times reports on Joseph and Hyrum Smith's death on June 27, 1844.

Jun 30, 1844

The Nauvoo Neighbor Extra reports on the deaths of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, June 27, 1844.

Sep 26, 1845

Hosea Stout's record of Brigham Young's anti-American/US Government comments from 1845.

Dec 21, 1845

William Clayton's record of Heber C. Kimball making a covenant to never rest until he avenges murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith.


Increase McGee Van Dusen and Maria Van Dusen publish temple expose, report details of the oath of vengeance.

May 14, 1848

Oliver B. Huntington's report of Brigham Young's anti-Government speech from May 14, 1848.


Increase Van Dusen and Maria Van Dusen published temple exposé that includes reference to an oath of vengeance.


In a sermon, Orson Hyde speaks of the death penalty for those who steal in 1853.


Brigham Young teaches that the murderers of Joseph will, in future, submit to "blood atonement."


Brigham Young teaches that the murderers of Joseph will, in future, submit to "blood atonement."

May 4, 1855

New York Herald records an anti-US Government speech from Brigham Young (acting as Governor).

Jul 18, 1855

Brigham says in a speech that his role as governor is influenced by his position in the priesthood.

Apr 15, 1856

Wilford Woodruff records Brigham Young distinguishing between blood which is "innocent" and "not innocent."

Dec 30, 1856

Hosea Stout records the raid made on the office of Stiles that led to the Utah War.

Jun 23, 1857

Wilford Woodruff reports death of Parley P. Pratt.

Jun 23, 1857

Journal History of the Church reports the death of Parley P. Pratt.

Jul 1, 1857

Deseret News reports death of Parley P. Pratt.

Aug 2, 1857

Wilford Woodruff records council meeting where actions against US army were discussed.

Aug 4, 1857

Brigham Young admonishes Saints to be prepared for the coming US army.

Aug 6, 1857

Franklin D. Richards, as brigadier general, showing the determination to fight if necessary.

Aug 12, 1857

Heber C. Kimball, in a sermon from July 1857, rousing up anti-government sentiment.

Aug 13, 1857

Daniel H. Wells writes to William H. Dame evidencing an effort to win the allegiance of the Indians.

Sep 1, 1857

Brigham Young meets with Indian chiefs 10 days before the massacre.

Sep 1, 1857

Brigham young says he may be unable to restrain the Indians from exterminating the U.S. troops.

Sep 1, 1857

Dimick B. Huntington records a meeting between the Pahvants and Brigham Young re: wartime policy against soldiers.

Sep 3, 1857 - Sep 8, 1857

Jesse Smith reports on the Fancher company passing through his area.

Sep 4, 1857

Brigham Young tells his nephew that, if the government attacks, the people will be ready and respond.

Sep 6, 1857

Hosea Stout records Brigham Young's rejection of the authority of the U.S. Government over Deseret.

Sep 9, 1857

Brigham, in his history, writes that he will not hold the Indians back from attacking if the government persisted in sending army.

Sep 9, 1857

Samuel Pitchforth, in his journal, reports that the emigrants were acting "mean" and threatening towards LDS.

Sep 10, 1857

Cedar City Relief Society minutes say that Eliza Ann Haight taught the importance of avenging the blood of the Prophets.

Sep 10, 1857

Letter from Brigham Young 1 day before MMM ordering that the Fancher Company to pass by without any interference.

Sep 12, 1857

Brigham Young informs Jeter Clinton that he has some control over the actions of the Indians in the territory.

Sep 14, 1857

Brigham Young commands the people to refrain from shedding blood if it can be avoided.

Sep 27, 1857

John Doyle Lee addresses the Utah Stake of Zion at Provo relating his account of MMM.

Sep 29, 1857

Wilford Woodruff's account of John Doyle Lee making his report to Brigham Young about MMM.

Oct 4, 1857

Christian attributes Mountain Meadows Masscare to retribution for Pratt's murder.

Oct 17, 1857

Los Angeles Star calls on the Government to investigate the massacre.

Oct 17, 1857

Daily Alta California publishes news of the massacre 1 month after Mountain Meadows; Mormons blamed.

Oct 27, 1857

George Powers the army and Indian preparation for possible military action he witnessed.

Nov 12, 1857

Chicago Daily Tribune makes mention of the rumor that the emigrants poisoned the animals.

Nov 20, 1857

John Doyle Lee, in a letter to Brigham Young, writes that the emigrants poisoned the animals and Indians to be blamed for the massacre.

Nov 21, 1857

Brigham Young's proclamation as Governor intended to resist U.S. troops.

Nov 21, 1857

Based on a rumour heard from a resident of Salt Lake, Chicago Tribune writes that Church leaders were to blame.


Hawley's recollection of the Fancher Company and a conversation with Lee after the massacre.


Orders from James Buchanan to march to Utah to put down a supposed rebellion.


George A. Smith recently found himself preaching a military discourse while in the south of the territory.


Heber C. Kimball's sermon acknowledging the split between Deseret and the U.S. government only 9 days after MMM.


Heber C. Kimball's sermon acknowledging the split between Deseret and the U.S. government only 16 days after MMM.


Wilford Woodruff, in a sermon delivered 16 days after MMM, shows his support to go do war if necessary.


John Taylor's anti-US Government comments from August 1857.


Heber C. Kimball teaches that Deseret will take physical action against any U.S. troops who decide to invade the area.


Heber C. Kimball's sermon 11 days before MMM with strong anti-U.S. government rhetoric.


Heber C. Kimball, in an August 1857 sermon, teaches that Deseret will take physical action against any U.S. troops who decide to invade the area.

Jan 6, 1858

Brigham Young believes mistreatment of Indians led to their violent behavior towards emigrants and others.

Jan 6, 1858

George A. Smith writes that migrants acted in an antagonistic, sometimes even violent, fashion towards LDS and Indians.

Jan 24, 1858

Charles L. Walker recalls a statement that leaders believed U.S. government wanted to attack and kill Mormons.

Feb 28, 1858

Thomas L. Kane's recollection of an interview with Indian chief Kanosh. Emigrants poisoned the cattle.

Mar 5, 1858

Brigham Young seems to indicate knowledge of cattle stolen from the emigrants being in the possession of Jacob Hamblin.

Apr 6, 1858

James Buchanan issues Amnesty for certain crimes during Utah War.

Jul 24, 1858

Governor Alfred Cumming Addressing the Nature of the Amnesty after the Utah War.

Aug 6, 1858

Account of massacre written by Smith and McKnight at Cedar City. Much of the blame is put onto the Indians.

Aug 17, 1858

Smith's report to Brigham concerning massacre based on interview with various people 11 months after the event.


Garland Hurt's statement that the Indians participated in the massacre due to the influence of Church members.


Heber C. Kimball, two months after Mountain Meadows, tells the Saints not to question whether a command from a leader is right or wrong.


Orson Hyde teaches that the blood of Joseph and Hyrum Smith are to be atoned for 4 months after massacre.

Mar 30, 1859

John Cradlebaugh offers discharge of the Grand Jury.

Apr 4, 1859

According to Albert Tracy, John Cradlebaugh dismissed the grand jury due to General Johnston withdrawing Cradlebaugh's army escort, not due to Cradlebaugh being upset with the jury's performance.

Apr 4, 1859

John Cradlebaugh's letter giving his reasons for dismissing the Grand Jury.

Apr 5, 1859

Valley Tan reproduces discharge for jury re: Parrish and Potter murders.

Apr 13, 1859

Blame is placed on the Indians, and the emigrants poisoned the animals is repeated.

Apr 27, 1859

New York Times reports on the discharging of the jury and defendants during the first trial.

May 5, 1859

Brigham Young writes about the "farcical" cost of relocating the children who survived massacre.

May 10, 1859

Forney writes to Anderson concerning his investigations into massacre. Lists surviving children.

May 10, 1859

Jacob Forney discusses the massacre, including information gleaned from locals and the surviving children.

May 12, 1859

Elias Smith issues warrant for Brigham Young's arrest on charge of being accessory after the fact.

May 25, 1859

James Henry Carlton's 1859 claim that two Native Americans reported to federal investigators they carried a letter from Brigham Young ordering them to kill those in the Fancher train.

May 25, 1859

James Henry Carleton's survey of the remains at Mountain Meadows Massacre.

May 1859

Brigham Young believes mistreatment of Indians led to their violent behavior towards emigrants and others.

Jun 27, 1859

According to Jacob Forney the children who survived the massacre are "competent witnesses" for a trial.

Jul 5, 1859

Brigham Young wants to bring charges against those responsible for the massacre but federal prosecutors do not.

Jul 21, 1859

In a letter, William Rogers writes that the emigrants were fooled by (fake) white flag of truce and killed by Mormons.

Jul 27, 1859

James Lynch claims Jacob Hamblin cannot be friends to both the Church and the US authorities.

Jul 27, 1859

Jacob Forney believes Utah War Amnesty included the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

Aug 8, 1859

Article in Harper's Weekly (1859) charges the Mormons with being the most active participants in the massacre.

Aug 25, 1859

James Lynch's statement concerning recovery of survivors from the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

Aug 26, 1859

Mormons are guilty of horrendous acts of evil, including murder, in the Utah territory. Mormons are protecting their own at a judicial level. Based, in part, on testimony of surviving children.

Aug 27, 1859

Brigham Young repeats what he heard Alfred Cumming tell Charles E. Sinclair: they did not want the guilty to be persecuted to paint the Church in negative light.


A portion of Jacob Forney's report concerning the massacre; includes excerpts of his interview with David W. Tulis and "Alfred [Hamblin]."

Sep 8, 1859

Article in Christian Observer claims that the massacre was carried out by Mormons dressed as Indians.

Sep 27, 1859

Delana R. Eckels maintains that "Blood Atonement" is openly taught by leaders as a form of control of the people.

Nov 15, 1859

J.S. Black, in letter to Alexander Wilson, writes that Judge John Cradlebaugh, grasping for prosecutorial power, would not give Wilson the warrants for execution.

Dec 15, 1859

Brigham writes to Kane. He had no knowledge of massacre until after the fact and the very thought of massacre makes him ill.


Jacob Forney reports that the emigrant party found themselves facing difficulties with the Piedes before the massacre.


Wilson to Forney: Orphans should be detained until they can testify in the (first) trial.

Feb 29, 1860

Valley Tan publishes William H. Rogers details of the remains at the massacre site in April 1859.

Aug 7, 1860

New York Times reports on the appointment of Judge Kinney as Chief Justice of Utah and Wilson as Associate Justice.


Jacob Forney, in a report, states that, while Indians are given some blame, bulk of responsibility imputed to Mormons.


A. B. Greenwood makes mention of massacre is made in Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs in November 1859.


Charles Brewer puts the blame on the Mormons. Records burying the remains at the massacre site.

May 25, 1861

Wilford Woodruff's account of Brigham Young visiting the area of Mountain Meadows where the massacre took place.


William H. Rogers records finding the orphaned children with John Doyle Lee.

Feb 23, 1863

Judge John Cradlebaugh's statement concerning the massacre at the House of Representatives, February 1863.

Jun 8, 1864

Brigham Young is reported to have removed the slab commemorating massacre placed there by a US army officer by George F. Price.


In March 1863, Brigham Young tries to impute blame for the massacre to the Indians.

Feb 3, 1865

Union Vedette prints article blaming the Blood Atonement & Mormon Reformation sermons from Brigham Young and Jedediah M. Grant to blame for the massacre.

Feb 7, 1865

Article in Union Vedette that Utah should not be admitted to the family of states due to massacre.

Jul 27, 1866

Union Vedette reports that Indians who participated in massacre blame the Mormons and leaders for it.

Jul 28, 1866

Article in Union Vedette claims Mormons have been agitating the government to prosecute the Indians for MMM.

Feb 16, 1869

Brigham Young tells George A. Hicks if he is guilty of participating in MMM, he would "try the remedy." He also affirms truth of Gospel not affected by massacre.

Nov 26, 1869

George Q. Cannon addresses the purported silence of the Church concerning the massacre.


Hymn (in the 1869 hymnal) teaching that the blood of those slaughtered pleads before God for vengeance.


Hymn (1869 hymnal) urging Saints to "Return good for evil to those who oppress" while awaiting the return of Jesus.


Hymn speaking of deliverance from oppression; used as rally cry during Utah War.


Hymn (from the 1869 hymnal) speaking of the "blood" of those slain crying for vengeance.


Hymn in 1869 hymnal warning of foes being at the door of their homes who seek plunder and to avenge blood of prophets.


Hymn in 1869 hymnal: God's redemption of Israel by the "lion" (God) who will be the "destroyer of the Gentiles."

Jul 27, 1870

Deseret News records Brigham Young teaching that the Church and its members never harmed anyone.

Apr 10, 1871

Affidavit of Bishop Philip Klingensmith ("Klingonsmith") concerning the massacre.

Jul 20, 1871

John D. Lee in private journal testifies that Brigham Young did not know about the massacre until after it happened and would have tried to stop it if he could.

Jul 29, 1871

July 1871 newspaper article in The Corinne Reporter places blame for massacre on Brigham.

Feb 20, 1872

Deseret Evening News records George Q. Cannon teaching that the massacre was carried out by a few earnest but foolish men with burning zeal.

May 21, 1872

In a letter, Brigham Young believes the judges wanted inquiry into massacre to remain open to paint a negative picture of the Church.

May 22, 1872

Cyrus Hawley places blame on Mormon people for the massacre.

Jul 11, 1872

John Doyle discusses Mountain Meadows Massacre with Frederick S. Dellenbaugh (1872).

Sep 17, 1872

Brigham Young is reported to have removed the slab commemorating massacre in Chicago Daily Tribune.


Discussion of Mountain Meadows Massacre at the House of Representatives, May 7, 1872. Blame imputed to LDS leadership.


T. B. H. Stenhouse mentions the "Missouri Wildcats" in 1873, at a time when the rumor began to spread.


Mark Twain discusses Mountain Meadows Massacre based on works such as as C.V. Waite, The Mormon Prophet.


T. B. H. Stenhouse confirms that running the cattle off was used, with success, against the Army.


Annie Hoag gives testimony of a drunk man confronting Isaac Haight.

Apr 10, 1874

John Taylor decries the Mountain Meadows Massacre as "diabolical."

May 27, 1874

Salt Lake Tribune reports on the marker being torn down for a second time. Brigham Young is said to be main figure behind massacre.

Sep 16, 1874

Jacob Boreman, in charge to Grand Jury, states that the Mormons are ignorant due to acceptance of polygamy and leaders engage in deception.

Sep 24, 1874

Indictment for Murder issued against William H. Dame.

Dec 14, 1874

David P. Whedon believes only with Federal assistance can there be a fair trial and guilty brought to justice.


Jacob Hamblin gives testimony of the rationale of the militia leadership to murder the emigrant train members.


Philip Klingensmith reports that the emigrant train passed Cedar City on or around September 3.


George K. Bowering provides account of the massacre and the events leading up to it.

Feb 24, 1875

Petition for Indicted. Bonds for bail are discussed. Any outstanding arrest warrants moved to be cancelled.

Feb 25, 1875

Grand Jury Subpoena for Brigham Young to testify at John Doyle Lee's trial on the side of the prosecution.

Apr 12, 1875

John Doyle Lee's affidavit claiming innocence.

May 6, 1875

George R. Maxwell and Jerome P. Cross issue arrest warrant for Philip Klingensmith on charge of participating in massacre.

May 12, 1875

Interview with John Doyle Lee in May 1875 by the Salt Lake Tribune.

Jul 5, 1875

James M. Mangum's Affidavit (excluded from evidence in John Doyle Lee's first trial). Positive picture of Lee as peacemaker and Indians as being violent against the emigrants is painted.

Jul 21, 1875

Statement from John Doyle Lee issued by his lawyer in July 1875. Claims he is innocent. Shares his informing Brigham about the massacre and his being distraught at such.

Jul 21, 1875

Plea for Indictment for John Doyle Lee.

Jul 24, 1875

Article published in New York Times blames LDS leadership for Mountain Meadows Massacre.

Jul 28, 1875

Brigham Young's physician informs court he cannot attend proceedings in Beaver without putting his health at risk.

Jul 29, 1875

Salt Lake Tribune's report of Bishop's interrogation of Klingensmith during the 2nd trial.

Jul 30, 1875

New York Times summarizes Wells Spicer's defense: it was due to the emigrants behaviour and the Indians were to blame and any LDS who helped did so out of fear of death.

Jul 30, 1875

George A. Smith's affidavit from 1875. Denies any role in planning the massacre or knowledge of it until after the fact.

Jul 30, 1875

Brigham Young answers questions concerning the Massacre as part of his Deposition in July 1875. Denies role in planning the Massacre.

Aug 3, 1875

Jacob S. Boreman's charge to the jury during John Doyle Lee's first trial.

Aug 5, 1875

Jabez G. Sutherland, John Doyle Lee's defense attorney at the first trial, reads the deposition of Brigham Young.

Sep 1, 1875

Massacre survivor Nancy Huff Cates (who was 4 at the time of the massacre) shares her memories of the massacre.

Sep 24, 1875

Affidavit of Philip Klingensmith re: involvement in Mountain Meadows Massacre in Daily Corrine Reporter.

Mar 23, 1876

George Q. Cannon says that critics are blaming church for unsolved crimes in Utah.

May 12, 1876

Article in Salt Lake Tribune admitting the first trial failed due to the prosecutors' "utter neglect of the business" and "disgraceful lethargy."

Jun 11, 1876

Charles L. Walker reports that Brigham Young was "foiled by Judge Cradlebaugh" and had to change his strategy regarding the massacre.

Sep 1876

Brigham Young told John Doyl Lee to stop telling him the details of the massacre 2-3 months after event.

Sep 14, 1876 - Sep 20, 1876

Laban Morrill gives testimony at Lee trial about what he heard in the Cedar City Council.

Sep 17, 1876

Report of John Doyle Lee's first trial from Dennis Fancher. Murder of two girls who survived the massacre and other atrocities mentioned.

Sep 20, 1876

Jacob S. Boreman's charge to the jury trying trial for Mountain Meadows Massacre.

Sep 23, 1876

Sumner Howard and William Nelson write that the Church was on the side of the prosecution during the Mountain Meadows Massacre trials.

Sep 28, 1876

Sumner Howard complaining of political intrigue from former prosecutors to malign his successful efforts.

Oct 10, 1876

John Doyle Lee's judgment and sentence.

Oct 10, 1876

Jacob Boreman passed the death sentence on John Doyle Lee who chooses to be shot as his method of execution.

Oct 24, 1876

Jacob S. Boreman endorsing Sumner Howard's plans for further pursuit and arrest.


Ann Eliza Young mentions an oath of vengeance against Government and people in the endowment.


John D. Lee gives the day of the Mountain Meadows Massacre as a Friday (corresponding to September 11, 1857).


John Doyle Lee in posthumous book says he thinks George A. Smith was sent by Brigham to prepare the massacre.


John Doyle Lee recounts meeting with Paiutes to convince them to attack the wagon train.


John Doyle Lee claims he sent a messenger to Isaac C. Haight asking for help to stop the Indians from attacking the wagon train further.


William Bishop gives date of Massacre as September 16, 1857 and day of week as Friday; imputes blame to Brigham Young due to his being both Governor of Utah and being President of the LDS Church.


John Doyle Lee says Isaac C. Haight plotted to give the emigrants a "brush" and attack them.


John D. Lee's final testimony gives the council's reasoning for ordering the massacre.

Mar 24, 1877

David O. Calder says John Doyle Lee's distorted view of doctrine caused massacre.

Mar 30, 1877

John D. Lee reportedly says he doesn't know that George A. Smith spoke out specifically against the Baker-Fancher party.

Mar 31, 1877

Brigham Young telegraphs President Rutherford B Hayes asking him to appoint a commission to investigate the massacre and punish the offenders.

Apr 9, 1877

John Lee told Anson and Mary Call in October 1857 the Indians were the only culpable party in the massacre—no whites engaged in it. Told Brigham Young the same thing as the Calls previously.

May 9, 1877

Sumner Howard writes in letter that John Doyle Lee was guilty and deserving of his faith. The evidence he was guilty was overwhelming.

May 12, 1877

New York Times interviews Brigham Young concerning John Doyle Lee's conviction and Mountain Meadows Massacre.

Jul 13, 1877

Article records that Captain John Tobin will be a principal witness to prove Brigham Young's connection with massacre.


John Doyle, in his confessions, states that blood atonement was preached frequently prior to the arrival of the emigrants just before the massacre.


William Bishop (John Doyle Lee's lawyer) lists those involved at Mountain Meadows as accessories before and after the fact. Calls Brigham Young the greatest criminal of the 19th century and blames teachings concerning Blood Atonement.


John Lee claims that Isaac C. Haight was the dominating personality, in spite of William H. Dame’s superior military position.


John Doyle Lee claims ignorance of Brigham Young's September 10, 1857 letter, and puts the blame on the Indians for the massacre.


John Doyle Lee recalls an oath of vengeance taken by Saints to avenge the blood of Joseph and Hyrum Smith.


Transcript of William Bishop's questioning of his client John Doyle Lee in Mormonism Unveiled.


Jacob Boreman believes John Doyle Lee was a scapegoat for the high authorities of the Church.


John Doyle Lee's final words before his execution March 23, 1877.


Fanny Stenhouse writes that Brigham must have implicitly approved of the massacre.

Mar 8, 1878

Sumner Howard provides refutation of claim John Doyle Lee never confessed at all and that "last confession" was falsified.

Sep 28, 1879

Salt Lake Tribune exposes endowment's oath against US Government and its people.


J. H. Beadle Beadle records an account of massacre shared with him by Lee. Exempts Brigham from ordering it and blames the emigrants for inciting a lot of anger against them.

Feb 18, 1882

Charles Willden heard the emigrants threaten violence against Utah residents and some claimed to have been participants in Joseph and Hyrum Smith's murder on the very day of the massacre.


Discussion and presentation of excerpts from John Doyle Lee's trial by the Juvenile Instructor. Tries to exonerate Church leaders.

Jan 28, 1884

Arrest Warrant for Isaac C. Haight.

Feb 14, 1884

Abraham O. Smoot recalls hearing about federal troops coming to Utah in summer 1857.

Oct 26, 1884

Charles W. Penrose denounces the massacre.


Polemical response to Charles W. Penrose on the massacre. Argues Brigham Young was an accessory after the fact.


James Holt Haslam discusses the Mountain Meadows Massacre and its aftermath.


Franklin D. Richards preaches that the blood of the Joseph and Hyrum Smith is upon the U.S. nation.

Nov 8, 1889

L. John Nuttall records John Moore denying there being an oath of vengeance in the endowment.

Nov 23, 1889

Deseret Weekly reports on hearing in federal court about the existence of an Oath of Vengeance.

Nov 26, 1889

Wilford Woodruff in 1889 denies the existence of an oath to avenge Joseph and Hyrum's death in the endowment.

Dec 6, 1889

Abraham H. Cannon records his father George Q. Cannon saying he made the oath of vengeance in the Nauvoo endowment.

Dec 6, 1889

Cannon tells his son he took an oath in the Nauvoo Temple against the murderers of Joseph and Hyrum.

Dec 7, 1889

Wilford Woodruff (in 1889) denies there being an oath to avenge Joseph and Hyrum Smith's deaths in the endowment.

Dec 7, 1889

Deseret News reports on debate about the existence of an Oath of Vengeance.


Andrew Jenson's corrections to the discussion concerning massacre as found in Hubert Howe Bancroft's History of Utah.


Edward Tullidge writes what he heard and experienced during Mountain Meadows Massacre.


Hubert Howe Bancroft disputes plausibility behind rumors that the U.S. Government wanted to invade the territory and kill Mormons.

Jan 1892

Mary H. White shares her recollections of the Mountain Meadows Massacre with Andrew Jenson.

Jan 24, 1892

Mary S. Campbell shares her recollections of massacre with Andrew Jenson.

Jan 25, 1892

William Barton shares his recollections of Mountain Meadows Massacre with Andrew Jenson.

Jan 29, 1892

Ellott Willden provides testimony of William C. Stewart murdering William Aden.

Jan 29, 1892 - Jan 30, 1892

Elliott Wilden shares recollections of Mountain Meadows with Andrew Jenson.

Mar 28, 1892

Samuel Knight shares his recollections of Mountain Meadows with Andrew Jenson.

Mar 31, 1892

Richard S. Robinson shares his recollections of MMM with Andrew Jenson.

Apr 8, 1892

David W. Tullis shares his recollections of Mountain Meadows Massacre with Andrew Jenson.


Orson Whitney in his History of Utah writes that John Doyle Lee was offered clemency if he implicated Church leadership for the massacre.


In his statement, John Hawley claims that the Endowment ceremony in Salt Lake City had an oath to avenge Joseph Smith's death.


John M. Higbee provides account of the events leading up to the massacre.

Feb 1894

John M. Higbee's 1894 recollection of the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

Jun 13, 1895

George Cannon's journal entry recollecting Samuel Knight's account of the Massacre.

Sep 21, 1895

Francis M. Lyman records what he was told concerning the massacre by George Adair (who himself heard such from others) in 1895.

Feb 4, 1896

John W. Judd writing to Jabez G. Sutherland on why he hesitated to dismiss the indictment while serving as US attorney.

Feb 5, 1896

Jabez G. Sutherland's letter to John W. Christian on why Judd hesitated to dismiss the indictment against John S. Higbee.

Jun 26, 1896

Daniel C. MacFarlane's June 26, 1896 affidavit concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

Oct 9, 1896

Massacre participant Joel W. White denying that he had given damaging testimony against John M. Higbee.

Aug 20, 1897

Massacre survivor Rebecca Dunlap Evins shares her memories of the massacre in 1897.


Andrew Jenson, in Church Chronology, records William H. Dame, George Washington Adair jr., and John Doyle Lee being admitted to bail.


Basil G. Parker recalls hearing Mormons say they felt insulted and threatened by members of the Baker-Fancher train.

May 10, 1902

Albert, an Indian boy who lived with Jacob Hamblin's family shares details about the massacre.

Aug 11, 1904

Transcription of massacre participant Samuel Knight's August 1904 sworn affidavit.


Contents of the "oath of vengeance" provided during the Smoot hearing. "Vengeance" to be carried out by God, not man.


James H. Martineau indicates William Dame initially ordered the emigrant company be allowed to pass in peace.

Jul 27, 1907

David McKay records George Washingon Adair Jr., starting that it was John S. Higbee, not John Doyle Lee, who gave the order to kill the emigrants.

Oct 1907

Affidavit of Hamilton G. Park (steward to Brigham Young during 1850s) from 1907. Brigham ordered the emigrants not to be attacked.

Jul 22, 1908

Massacre participant Nephi Johnson's affidavit concerning the massacre. States that John Doyle Lee lied to Brigham Young when he blamed the Indians and that Brigham wanted to bring those responsible to justice.

Mar 1910

Nephi Johnson's 1910 recollection of the Massacre in a letter to Anthon Lund.

Feb 22, 1912

In a late recollection, David H. Cannon describes the instruction at the Endowment House in regards to vengeance.

May 26, 1913

James Eli Ashcraft on his deathbed, told Don C. Fullmer he heard Brigham Young's letter not to harm the emigrants read in his presence.


Rudger Clawson's discussion of MMM published by the Church's British Mission in part, a response to Hubert Howe Bancroft.


Josiah F. Gibbs mentions oath against the U.S. Government in the St. George Temple.

Jul 21, 1914

Brigham Young informed Isaac C. Haight he deserved to be hanged for his participation in the massacre.


Robert N. Baskin reproduces his closing argument. Accuses Brigham Young of dishonesty concerning Mountain Meadows.

Apr 26, 1916

Collins R. Hakes, an eyewitness to John Doyle Lee's execution, recounts Lee's last words in 1877.


Oath of Vengeance as produced by W. M. Paden's 1931 "Temple Mormonism."

Mar 11, 1932

Juror Andrew Corry's March 1932 recollection of a conversation of dream where John Doyle Lee would be made a scapegoat.

Sep 4, 1938

Massacre survivor Martha Elizabeth Evins (Baker) shares her memories of the massacre in 1938.

Aug 25, 1940

Mountain Meadows's survivor Sallie Baker Gladden Mitchell shares her memories of the massacre in 1940.


Summary of Juanita Brooks's 1950 book The Mountain Meadows Massacre.


Juanita Brooks summarizes her conclusions from her 1950 study of the massacre.


Thomas Croppers shares a story of cattle being poisoned, blaming the emigrants.

Apr 20, 1961

First Presidency makes the decision to reinstate John Doyle Lee to full membership (ordinances performed May 8-9, 1961).


Juanita Brooks reports the restoration of John D. Lee's temple blessings.


Wilford Hill Lecheminant provides biographical detials of William Harney.


Juanita Brooks reports the restoration of John D. Lee's temple blessings.


Levi S. Peterson describes Juanita Brooks's efforts to get John D. Lee's temple blessings restored.

Sep 12, 1999

Deseret News reports on the dedication of the monument at the massacre site.

Nov 1999

Excerpts of Gordon B. Hinckley's comments at the dedication of the Mountain Meadows Massacre monument in 1999, published in the Ensign.


Bagley describes the restoration of John D. Lee's temple blessings.

Sep 11, 2007

Henry B. Eyring comments on massacre on its 150th anniversary; says that the massacre was abhorrent in light of the Gospel.

Sep 11, 2007

Carrie A. Moore records Forest Cuch referring to the Paiute involvement in the massacre as a "myth" and something he is tired of hearing; applauded MMM Foundation for "striving for the truth."

Sep 12, 2007

Deseret News interprets the comments of Henry B. Eyring and Gordon B. Hinckley as the Church apologizing for the massacre.

Sep 12, 2007

Deseret News reports on the 150th anniversary memorial service of the massacre.

Sep 15, 2007

Church News reports on the 150th anniversary memorial service for the massacre.

Sep 30, 2007

Mountain Meadows Massacre being addressed in the Ensign during the 150th anniversary of the massacre.


Appendix on the Iron County Militia lists its members.


UAIDA Website claims that Paiute oral tradition indicates the Paiutes did not participant in MMM or its aftermath.


Walker et al. mention the institutional support they had from the Church for their book.


Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley, Glen M. Leonard provide brief biographical entry on William Dame.


Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley, Glen M. Leonard provide brief biographical sketch of John M. Higbee.


List of the emigrants part of the Baker-Fancher party.


Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley, Glen M. Leonard provide brief biographical entry for Philip Klingensmith.


Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley, Glen M. Leonard provide a brief biographical entry for Isaac C. Haight.


Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley, Glen M. Leonard provide brief biographical entry from Nephi Johnson.


Short biographical entry for John D. Lee by Ronald W. Walker, Richard E. Turley, Glen M. Leonard.


Summary of Massacre at Mountain Meadows.


Richard E. Turley Jr notes that many scholars think John Doyle Lee's autobiography was sensationalized by his lawyer, William Bishop.


Study in International Journal of Legal Medicine concludes that the Emigrants did Not Poison the Water Supply and Animals.

2014 Website notes U.S. Civil War began April 12, 1861 and ended April 9, 1865.

May 2015

Gospel Topics Essay Addressing the Mountain Meadows Massacre.


Juanita Brooks's letter from 1961 discussing the details of restoring John D. Lee's Church blessings.


Biographical entry for Brigham on the Church Historian's Press website.


Harold B. Lee Library briefly describes the Utah War and the federal expeditionary force.


Biographical entry for Daniel H. Wells by the Church Historian's Press.


KJV Revelation 6:9–11 in the LDS Standard Works; the fifth seal depicts martyrs crying for God to avenge them.


Summary of the book Vengeance Is Mine: The Mountain Meadows Massacre and Its Aftermath.


Biographical summary of Daniel H. Wells provided by The Joseph Smith Papers.


BYU Harold B. Lee Library gives biographical entry to its holdings of Jacob Hamblin's papers.


Melvin L. Bashore provides history of the pioneer exodus and Mormon trail.