Zelph the Lamanite

Who is Zelph the Lamanite?

Joseph Smith[BIO] attributed the name Zelph[BIO] to a skeleton found by a group of men[1] during Zion's Camp.[2] The bones were discovered[3] in a burial mound.[4] The details are fuzzy across conflicting accounts, but two accounts mention Joseph having a vision about Zelph.[5] Though there are conflicting accounts, Zelph was apparently identified as a "white Lamanite"[6] and a warrior[7] who was killed in a battle.[8]

How reliable is the story about Zelph?

Reasonably reliable. There are enough early first-hand accounts[9] to be confident Joseph and the others found skeletal remains,[10] referred to the remains as Zelph,[11] identified them as being from a "white Lamanite,"[12] and recovered an arrowhead.[13]

After that, early reports start to conflict with one another. Most records mention battles,[14] but only one firsthand source talks about a "last battle."[15] A few accounts also mention an individual named Onandagus (or Omandagus) with some saying Onandagus was a prophet[16] and another saying he was a king.[17]

Did the Church ever make an official account of the episode?

Yes. The Manuscript History of the Church pulled from several of the firsthand records to synthesize a more official story of Zelph.[18] In it, there are several redactions related to Zelph being associated with the last battle of the Nephites and Lamanites in the Book of Mormon.[19] For unknown reasons, a Times and Seasons article printed in 1846 (after Joseph's death) ignored these redactions and printed them anyway.[20]

Doesn’t this story make it seem like Joseph Smith was just making things up?

Maybe. Joseph Smith likely considered all Native Americans "Lamanites,"[21] so finding ancient skeletal remains in a mound and putting them in a Book of Mormon context would be natural.[22]

E. D. Howe,[BIO] an early anti-Mormon author, said that Joseph was just trying to inspire his "troops," so he told a story[23] about Zelph the warrior.[24]

Has there ever been any scientific testing on the mound where Zelph was found?

Yes. Excavations in the 1970s and 1980s by the University of Illinois determined that the mounds date from around 50 BC to 250 AD.[25]

Does this story support the idea that the Book of Mormon took place in North America?

Yes, it could. The Zelph mound is in Pike County, Illinois, in North America.[26] Early Saints held different views about Book of Mormon geography, as do modern scholars.[27] The Church does not take a specific position on Book of Mormon geography.[28]

Does this say something about Joseph's credibility?

Possibly. One could interpret the story as E. D. Howe did, which is that Joseph simply rallied his troops with a made-up story about an ancient warrior.[29] Or one could believe Joseph had some revelatory insight.[30]

Some People Say . . .

"Who's Zelph?"

— overheard in Sunday School

The Facts

  • Early Saints were quick to attribute any ancient native artifact found to be evidence of the Book of Mormon.

  • Joseph Smith identified skeletal remains found in a mound in Illinois as an ancient Lamanite named "Zelph."

  • Some accounts say that Joseph identified the Lamanite as being "white."

  • Accounts differ on the details of the discovery and what exactly Joseph said about Zelph.

Our Take

The Zelph story, though some details and how we know them are fuzzy, is a story about a prophet telling a very specific story. Was Joseph Smith giving a kind of revelation here? Or was he telling a tall tale to impress his friends? If Joseph was making claims about his "area of expertise" and he was incorrect, could that be seen as a strike against his credibility?

Multiple witnesses did record that men on Zion's Camp did find skeletal remains in a mound. They also attested that Joseph identified them as a Lamanite named Zelph.

To the early Saints, the term "Lamanite" was often used synonymously with "Indian," so finding bones belonging to a Native American in a mound structure and referring to them as Lamanite is not unusual. However, Joseph Smith identifying the bones and talking about them seems odd. Later, the University of Illinois dated the mounds to the late Book of Mormon times.

It’s okay to feel a little confused or weirded out by the Zelph story—it is strange. It's also fine to think it’s not that important. There is no "Book of Zelph" or a section of the Doctrine & Covenants containing a revelation related to him. Given Joseph never taught or spoke about Zelph again, it seems it might not have been that important. As to Joseph's credibility—a better test than Zelph might be to focus on what he taught most, like the restoration or plan of salvation.

What's Your Take?

280 characters remaining
These takes are curated for a general audience and may contain minor edits when posted.
  • Bret
    I have ancestors from Zion's camp. I had mixed thoughts about the Zelph story for the past 40 years. At first I believed it, then over the years, considered it possibly a story to entertain & help this difficult journey as I guessed the bones were not that old, time to reconsider
  • David
    I think another possibility is that while Joseph Smith was a prophet, not everything he did was inspired. He may have gotten carried away in the prophetic impulse and misinterpreted his own excitement and imagination for vision and prophecy.
Footnotes